Disclaimer: This page is not here to be used as a diagnosis. This page is purely educational and it is completely dependent on the individual if they make the decision of self-diagnosis. If one finds themself relating to any of the listed forms of neurodivergence, it is encouraged to reach out to medical professionals if possible, especially if this neurodivergence is causing distress/harm (physically, mentally, and/or emotionally).
Note: This page only includes talk of conditions under the DSM-5, ICD-11, and other conditions that are commonly associated with the neurodivergent community. It may not have every diagnosed condition one has; however, it has a list of up-to-date diagnoses used amongst medical spaces. One's previous diagnoses may not be used in medical spaces anymore (and may have been renamed/replaced with a different diagnosis) so it is possible that one may not find their diagnosis on this page.
Neurodivergent (ND), neuroatypical, and/or neurovariant are terms to describe individuals who do not fit what society perceives as typical in ways of thinking and/or in how one's brain functions. This includes mental disorders, mental disabilities, psychological variations, mental variations, and similar.
The term "neurodivergence" is often mistaken to be exclusively for developmental conditions/disorders; however, the coiner of the term has disproven this, and made it clear that neurodivergence can be used by anyone who does not fit the typical perception of mental functioning,
Neurodivergence may at times overlap with physical disabilities, and some forms of neurodivergence are considered psychological/mental disabilities in and of themselves (however, that can depend on the condition, as well as what those with said conditions feel is appropriate).
Neurodivergence is not an exclusively queer experience, nor is it inherently LGBT+; however, it can affect one's view on gender, sex, attraction, relationship, pronouns, and presentation. While it does not affect all neurodivergent individuals' views on their identities, it does affect a large amount of them, and there has been studies that prove a tie between different disorders/variance and queerness. There have been a number of studies that show that neurodivergent individuals are more likely to be cisn't due to their unique functioning and way of thinking about gender.
Many intersex variations can also be linked with neurodivergence, typically one's relating to hormonal and/or chromosomal differences.
- 1 Neurodivergent Forms
- 1.1 Addictive Disorders
- 1.2 Adjustment Disorders
- 1.3 Anxiety Disorders
- 1.4 Attractional Disorders
- 1.5 Auditory Processing Disorder
- 1.6 Autism Spectrum
- 1.7 Behavioral Disorders
- 1.8 Cognitive Disorders
- 1.9 Conversion Disorder
- 1.10 Communication Disorders
- 1.11 Developmental Disorders
- 1.12 Dissociative Disorders
- 1.13 Dysphoria
- 1.14 Eating Disorders
- 1.15 Epilepsy
- 1.16 Factitious Disorder
- 1.17 Intellectual Disabilities
- 1.18 Maladaptive Daydreaming
- 1.19 Mood Disorders
- 1.20 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders
- 1.21 Personality Disorders
- 1.22 Plurality
- 1.23 Postpartum-
- 1.24 Psychotic Disorders
- 1.25 Psychological Syndromes
- 1.26 Sensory Processing Disorder
- 1.27 Sleep Disorders
- 1.28 Somatic Symptom Disorder
- 1.29 Specific Learning Disorder
- 1.30 Speech Disorders
- 1.31 Synesthesia
- 1.32 Thought Disorders
- 1.33 Tic Disorders
- 1.34 Trauma Disorders
- 2 Brain Deterioration/Head Trauma
- 3 Severe Headaches
- 4 Terminology
- 5 Psychological Trauma
- 6 Neurodivergent Issues/Oppression
- 7 Flag/Symbol
- 8 Resources
Neurodivergence comes in a variety of forms, many of which are categorized accordingly by symptoms, thought-patterns, functioning, and behavior. It is important that one reads the articles linked to each form in order to gain more information on these conditions and it is encouraged to research further into the community and spread awareness on these topics.
While most mental conditions that are recognized on the DSM-5 and the ICD-11 are on here, some may not be due to the terminology of diagnosis used. Some terms used in diagnosis include the following:
- Atypical-: when ones symptoms for a specific condition are non-typical. No atypical- conditions are listed on this page, due to the term being able to be put in front of any condition.
- Other-/Other Specified-: when one is extremely close/close enough to be identified as something, but is missing several of the typical requirements for diagnosis. Most other- terms are listed on this page; however, there may be more specific ones not listed, (such as Other Tobacco-Induced Disorders) due to them being specific variations of already listed terms (ie: Tobacco Withdrawal and Tobacco Use Disorder).
- Unspecified-: when one has symptoms of a specific condition, but do not fall close-enough to any of the diagnoses available. Most unspecified- terms are listed on this page; however, like with the other- terms, there may be more specific ones not listed.
Addictive Disorders are conditions in which one grows dependent on addictive substances (alcohol, drugs, chemicals, etc). Often times this addiction begins due to family history of addiction and/or in order to deal with depression, anxiety, neurodivergence, trauma, and/or disabilities; however, it can begin from a number of causes. Addiction can become life-threatening and can be difficult to break free from.
There are multiple different types of addictive disorders, which are discussed briefly in the following list:
- Gambling Disorder/Problem Gambling/Compulsive Gambling: an addictive disorder in which one compulsively/addictively gambles, often to the point of losing an excessive amount of money/personal belongings. This disorder can develop from trauma/depression/anxiety/other forms of neurodivergence, stress, negative thoughts, social influence, and/or similar factors. More information can be found here.
- Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD)/Gaming Disorder: an addictive disorder in which one compulsively/addictively plays video games/online games to an extent that it becomes impairing to ones mental health. This disorder commonly partners anxiety (specifically social anxiety). More information can be found here.
- Substance Use Disorder (SUD): an addictive disorder in which one compulsively/addictively consumes chemicals (typically drugs and alcohol; however, other substances may apply). Common symptoms are irritability, sleepiness/difficulty sleeping, restlessness, depression, anxiety, mood swings, troubles with eating, headaches, and similar. More information can be found here. Subsets to this include the following:
- Alcohol Use Disorder: an addictive disorder in which one compulsively/addictively consumes alcohol. More information can be found here.
- Cannabis Use Disorder: an addictive disorder in which one compulsively/addictively consumes cannabis (aka marijuana). More information can be found here.
- Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD): when one experiences intense flashbacks of their past times being high/intoxicated. These could occur months-years after using the hallucinogen, and it can feel as though the flashback is merging with the current happenings. More information can be found here.
- Phencyclidine Use Disorder: an addictive disorder in which one compulsively/addictively uses phencyclidine (aka Angel Dust or PCP). More information can be found here.
- Inhalant Use Disorder: an addictive disorder in which one compulsively/addictively uses inhalants (such as paint, glue, white out, cleaning products, etc). More information can be found here.
- Opioid Use Disorder: an addictive disorder in which one compulsively/addictively uses opioids (such as morphine, heroin, some painkillers, methadone, etc). More information can be found here.
- Other Hallucinogen Use Disorder: an addictive disorder in which one compulsively/addictively uses hallucinogens (besides phencyclidine). More information can be found here.
- Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Use Disorder (SHA Use Disorder): an addictive disorder in which one compulsively/addictively uses sedatives, hypnotics, and/or anxiolytics. More information can be found here.
- Stimulant Use Disorder: an addictive disorder in which one compulsively/addictively uses stimulants. More information can be found here.
- Tobacco Use Disorder: an addictive disorder in which one compulsively/addictively uses tobacco. More information can be found here.
- Other (or Unknown) Substance Use Disorder: when one does not fit any specific substance use disorder subsets; however, they hold symptoms of a substance use disorder, and can still be identified as such. More information can be found here.
- Substance Withdrawal: an addictive disorder related to stopping an addictive substance (usually sudden stopping; however, it can be a slow stop as well). The typical symptoms include irritability, trouble sleeping, exhaustion, mood swings, hallucinations/delusions, anxiety/depression, headaches, physical strain/issues, fever-like symptoms, and similar. More information can be found here. Subsets to this include the following:
- Alcohol Withdrawal (Syndrome): a condition caused by stopping regular/addictive use of alcohol. More information can be found here.
- Caffeine Withdrawal: a condition caused by stopping regular/addictive use of caffeine. More information can be found here.
- Cannabis Withdrawal: a condition caused by stopping regular/addictive use of cannabis. More information can be found here.
- Hallucinogen Withdrawal: a condition caused by stopping regular/addictive use of hallucinogens. More information can be found here.
- Opioid Withdrawal: a condition caused by stopping regular/addictive use of opioids. More information can be found here.
- Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic (SHA) Withdrawal: a condition caused by stopping regular/addictive use of sedatives, hypnotics, and/or anxiolytics. More information can be found here.
- Stimulant Withdrawal: a condition caused by stopping regular/addictive use of stimulants. More information can be found here.
- Tobacco Withdrawal: a condition caused by stopping regular/addictive use of tobacco. More information can be found here.
- Other (or Unknown) Substance Withdrawal: when one closely fits a withdrawal disorder, but is experiencing withdrawal from substance that is not on the other subsets, or withdrawal from an unknown substance.
For all of the disorders listed above, the affected individuals are often unable to break away from this dependence on their own (even if they realize the harm it causes), and professional help is highly recommended and often required. Addiction and substance abuse are common amongst those with these disorders.
Adjustment Disorders are stress-related conditions, in which one experiences high amounts of depression and/or anxiety due to being in a high-stress environment. Some common causes for adjustment disorders are moving to a new home, living in dangerous spaces, relationship problems, losing a job/having low income, school/work stress, life threatening experiences, or even having other forms of neurodivergence that causes stress.
Adjustment disorders, if caught and treated, can be taken care of in a quicker amount of time than most other disorders. However, if not treated quickly, adjustment disorders have the possibility of forming into something serious, such as an anxiety or depressive disorder.
More about adjustment disorders can be found here.
Anxiety Disorders are conditions in which the brain overthinks, stresses over, or has paranoia over things (usually simple/everyday things that should not cause such stress). Anxiety Disorders can be caused by chemical/hormonal imbalances, hereditary passing, trauma, and/or from high amounts of stress in daily life.
There are multiple different types of anxiety disorders, which are discussed briefly in the following list:
- Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive distress and worry about activities, events, and individuals, even if these activities/events/individuals are seen/experienced on the daily. This means one has anxiety about concepts that can be considered/classified as mundane and often times have little to no risk factors involved. More information can be found here.
- Panic Disorder: an anxiety disorder characterized by reoccurring and unexpected panic attacks. The cause for panic disorder is unknown; however, it is known to run in families and risk factors include smoking, psychological stress, and a past of child abuse. More information can be found here.
- Phobias: a type of anxiety disorder characterized by an irrational fear of a specific object, situation, type of individual, and similar. Typically agoraphobia is brought up in terms of anxiety disorders; however, all phobias fall under the anxiety spectrum. More information an be found here.
- Selective Mutism (SM)/Situational Mutism: a type of anxiety disorder in which one cannot speak in specific situations, specific places, and/or around specific individuals if their anxiety is triggered. They fully understand speech and can typically talk perfectly fine; however, when triggered, they are incapable/unable, even if they try. More information can be found here. (Note: those with this condition prefer the term 'situational' over 'selective,' as they are not choosing to be mute).
- Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD): an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive worry/distress when separated from home and/or individuals on has formed an emotional bond to. Anxiety when separated is common behavior within children; however, if one continues to express anxiety when separated at an older age, they likely have SAD. More information can be found here.
- Social Anxiety Disorder or Social Phobia: a type of anxiety disorder characterized by excessive worry/distress when in social spaces. This should not be confused with shyness and/or stage fright. More information can be found here.
- Other Specified Anxiety Disorder: when one closely fits an anxiety disorder but does not fit the full diagnostic requirements. They may be considered "close enough" to a condition to be diagnosed as it (such as being diagnosed with SAD, despite not fitting all the symptoms). More information can be found here.
- Unspecified Anxiety Disorder: when one shows symptoms of an anxiety disorder but does not fit any subset enough to be diagnosed with a specific form of it.
Attractional Disorders are conditions in which one experiences attractional abnormalities, or has a distressing form of attraction. The term "attractional disorder" is not widely known amongst the medical community; however, it is a replacement for the term "sexual disorders" as not all forms of disordered attraction are sexual in nature and can be based on romantic and/or tertiary attractions as well.
Some attractional disorders (specifically some sexual disorders) are not neurodivergent in nature (as they are related more to bodily functions than mental functions) and will not be discussed on this page.
The multiple different types of attractional disorders that are neurodivergent are discussed briefly in the following list:
- Hyper-: a disorder characterized by having intense/unnaturally high attractional desires (typically applying to sexual attraction; however, other forms of attraction may apply as well). This is due to other forms of neurodivergence, alcohol/drugs, trauma, chemical imbalances, and/or hormonal imbalances.
- Hypo-: a disorder characterized by having unnaturally low attractional desires (typically applying to sexual attraction; however, other forms of attraction may apply as well). This is due to other forms of neurodivergence, alcohol/drugs, trauma, chemical imbalances, and/or hormonal imbalances.
- Paraphilias/Paraphilic Disorders: a spectrum of disorders characterized by unhealthy and/or unnatural attraction. The most commonly recognized paraphilias include pedophilia, zoophilia, necrophilia, incestual attraction, exhibitionism, voyeurism, and transvestic disorder; however, they are many other varieties of paraphilias, which you can find covered here. Objectum attraction is sometimes classified as paraphilic; however, the community is pushing to change this view, as it does not accurately represent the objectum experience. While some with paraphilic disorders may act on their attraction, many do not and it should not be assumed that all paraphilic individuals are dangerous or criminals.
- Sexual Dysfunction (neurological forms): difficulty experienced during sexual activity, such as issues with pleasure, desire, preference, arousal, and/or orgasm. Sexual dysfunction can be from neurological differences (such as depression) or it can be from physical differences (such as hormonal imbalances). If it is from physical differences, its not typically classified as neurodivergent; however, it can be if it affects one's mental health. More information can be found here.
Auditory Processing Disorder
Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) is a condition in which one's brain struggles to comprehend speech. The differences between how different words sound can be difficult or impossible for an individual with APD to process. For example, chair, hair, and bear could all sound exactly or almost exactly the same to someone with APD, and/or a sentence can get scrambled when being processed (and thus can be difficult or impossible to understand).
Those with APD can find extreme difficulty following directions or participating in conversation. School and work can be extremely difficult, especially if there are a lot of background noises. More information can be found here.
The Autism Spectrum is a term used to describe a condition that comes in many varieties, in which one has a brain that functions in a way that exhibits restricted/repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. Those within the Autism Spectrum tend to perceive the world/individuals/society around them in a unique manner, one that most neurotypical Individuals (and even some neurodivergent Individuals) cannot fully understand/relate to.
Autists tend to dislike autism being described as a disorder, as many feel as though that is undermining their experiences and generalizing autism as a concept that needs "fixing." The Autism Spectrum is often referred to as "ASD" or "Autism Spectrum Disorder;" however, many autists dislike this, as the term "disorder" being included with autism is negatively viewed within the community. Some autists are comfortable with their condition being referred to as a disability; however, this does not apply to all autists, and it should be respected that some autists may be uncomfortable with the terminology.
Some autists need assistance in daily life, depending on their mental circumstances (ie: if they can speak, do school alone, etc). This does not make them weak, childish, or "wrongly developed." It simply means that they have different struggles than neurotypical (and possibly other neurodivergent) individuals do. Some (but not all) autists are non-verbal or partially verbal and this should be recognized and respected, as attempting to force them to speak may cause immense distress. It is important to check an autistic individual's limits, just as one should check with others.
Autistic individuals often have hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity in one or more of their senses and can in turn struggle in certain spaces (at home or socially) if not given the proper tools (ie: earmuffs for hypersensitive hearing). This does not apply to all autistic individuals; however, it does apply to many.
Some outdated/not-widely-appreciated terms that are associated with the Autism Spectrum include the following:
- Asperger Syndrome/Disorder: an autistic individual that has significant difficulties in social interaction and nonverbal communication and does not have "impaired intelligence" or "impaired language."
- Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD), Hellers Syndrome, and/or Disintegrative Psychosis: an autistic individual that has "developmental delays" or "severe/sudden reversals" in language, social function, and motor skills.
- Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS:) an autistic individual that doesn't "meet the full criteria" for "other forms" of autism.
These terms, while still used in many medical spaces, have been criticized in the community for trying to categorize autism, when autism is too diverse of an experience to be categorized in such a way.
Some other terms that are highly disliked (and may even be triggering/desapizing) within the autistic community are the terms High-Functioning, Medium-Functioning, and Low-Functioning. These terms are used to describe how "capable/intelligent" an autistic individual is (ie: high-functioning being "more capable" than low-functioning). These terms disregard the fact that every autistic individual functions separately, and that how they function may be fluid. It also diminishes an autistic individual, by saying they are "less intelligent" if they are struggling with skills others may have, which is untrue.
More information can be found here.
Behavioral Disorders (BDs) are conditions in which one's brain disrupts an individuals way of functioning/thinking, and thus affects their behavior in a negative way. These disorders can be caused by hormonal/chemical imbalances, abuse/trauma, physical issues/damages/malnutrition, and/or it can be hereditary.
There are multiple different types of behavioral disorders, which are discussed briefly in the following list:
- Conduct Disorder: a disorder (specifically diagnosed in children) in which one has irritable and disruptive behavior, often correlated to breaking rules and violating others rights. This does not have to be purposeful behavior and can be partnered with other disorders or environmental components. If acknowledged and treated, this disorder typically does not persist into adulthood. More information can be found here.
- Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD): a disorder (specifically diagnosed in children) in which one has intense anger/temper outbursts that are far more often and aggressive than typical childhood moodiness. Those with DMDD tend to be easily irritable and may struggle in social spaces from this irritability. If acknowledged and treated, this disorder typically does not persist into adulthood. More information can be found here.
- Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED): a disorder characterized by uncontrollable and random episodes of explosive anger. This can include screaming, yelling, shoving, hitting, etc, and the individual experiencing this has little to no control over their actions. Immense guilt is often felt after the episode and typical episodes last about 30 minutes long. More information can be found here.
- Impulse Control Disorders: conditions in which one has impulsive thoughts/desires, and experience difficulty or an inability to deny said thoughts/desires. These impulses are often negative in nature, or could result with serious damage to oneself (physically, mentally, socially, etc). Three specific impulse control disorders include the following:
- Compulsive Sexual Behavior: an impulse control disorder in which the affected individual has a sexual impulsive behaviors (masturbation, excessive use of pornography, etc) often which are acted out in public, thus causing issues for them and those around them. This disorder can often lead to feelings of guilt, shame, and embarrassment. This is sometimes used interchangeably with hypersexuality; however, some may argue that the two are different, or that they only sometimes overlap. More information can be found here.
- Kleptomania: an impulse control disorder in which the affected individual has impulsive behaviors related to stealing/thievery. Oftentimes the affected individual feels guilt, panic, shame, and embarrassment for their behaviors. Those with this disorder do not have a reason to steal, and there is no specific gain for them doing so. They often steal items that do little to nothing in their everyday life. More information can be found here,
- Pyromania: an impulse control disorder in which the affected individual has impulsive behaviors related to setting fires. Oftentimes the affected individual feels guilt, shame, panic, and embarrassment for their behaviors. Those with this disorder do not have a reason to set fires, and there is no specific gain for them doing so. More information can be found here,
- Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD:) a disorder characterized by irrational anger and resentment towards those around the affected individual, often times with the thought that others are wronging them in some way. The affected individual often has difficulty seeing the irrationality in their anger. More information can be found here.
Cognitive Disorders (CDs) or Neurocognitive Disorders (NCDs) are conditions formed from brain trauma/injury, genetic abnormalities, toxins, stroke/seizure, and/or heart issues. These disorders cause struggles with mental functioning, learning and memory, perceptual motor-function, language, complex attention, and social cognition.
There are multiple types of cognitive disorders, which are discussed briefly in the following list:
- Delirium: delirium (as a disorder rather than a side-effect) is characterized by difficulty thinking/remembering/communicating, reduced awareness, easy distraction, withdrawn behavior, slowed behavior, and/or trouble processing things (such as reading and writing). More information can be found here.
- Major Neurocognitive Disorder (Dementia): a cognitive disorder characterized by issues with memories, complications with comprehending speech, struggles with mental/intellectual reasonings and self control, and feelings of apathy. More information can be found here.
- Mild Neurocognitive Disorder (Amnesia): a cognitive disorder that holds the same symptoms as dementia, just to a lesser extent. More information can be found here.
- Unspecified Neurocognitive Disorder: a condition that does not fit delirium, mild neurocognitive disorder, or major neurocognitive disorder, but still holds the symptoms of being a cognitive disorder.
Conversion Disorder (Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder) is a condition in which one experiences physical issues relating to ones nervous system (blindness, deafness, paralysis, etc). that cannot be explained through injury/damage. The cause of this condition is not well understood; however, it is typically associated with psychological factors (such as stress and trauma). The theory behind why this occurs is that ones mind searches for a physical outlet for psychological stress.
More information on this condition can be found here.
Communication Disorders are conditions in which one experiences difficulty in language and/or speech. These disorders are often caused by genetic differences and/or issues with brain development.
There are multiple types of communication disorders, which are discussed briefly in the following list:
- Childhood-Onset Fluency Disorder: a condition in which a young individual struggles with words/speech in a way that is unexpected for their age (such as a 10-year-old struggling with simple words). This often includes stuttering, tics, prolonged vocalization, and an avoidance at long or difficult words. More information can be found here.
- Language Disorder: a condition in which an individual struggles with language (written, spoken, signed, etc) to a point of limiting their abilities, especially in social spaces. More information can be found here.
- Social Pragmatic Communication Disorder (SPCD)/Social Communication Disorder (SCD): a condition in which an individual struggles with social communication. They often struggle understanding implications (such as metaphors, sarcasm, and humor), struggle to understand different physical cues (such as facial expressions), have difficulty differentiating how to speak to different Individuals (such as speaking to a stranger in the same way they'd speak to family, or vice versa), and similar struggles. More information can be found here.
- Speech Sound Disorder (SSD): a condition in which young individuals struggle with pronunciation and speech to an extent that is unexpected for their age. They often struggle to say words correctly (and may struggle with tongue and/or mouth movement), and it can be difficult to identify what they are attempting to say. More information can be found here.
- Unspecified Communication Disorder: when an individual shows evidence/signs of a communication disorder, but do not fit the criteria for any specific form of it. For example, they may show significant trouble with pronunciation and physical cues, but do not match any other criteria for SSD or SCD. More information can be found here.
Developmental Disorders are conditions caused by an impairment in physical, learning, language, or behavioral areas. The causes for these are usually (but not always) unclear/undiscovered; however, they are usually present since childhood, and are likely not caused by trauma.
There are multiple different types of developmental disorders, which are discussed briefly in the following list:
- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a disorder characterized by struggling with concentration/attention, excessive energy/hyperactivity, hyperfixation, and impulsivity. Those with ADHD often struggle with neutral concentration, as the concentration levels are either extreme (hyperfixation) or too little (deficit). They may struggle with sitting/standing still, focus, and may make seemingly-irrational decisions due to impulse. More information can be found here.
- Autism Spectrum: autism is sometimes classified as a developmental disorder; however, this can be offensive towards autists, as they typically do not view their mental differences as a disorder.
- Cerebral Palsy: a developmental disorder in which one has muscle difficulties (being too stiff, too soft, having random tremors, lack of coordination, difficulty swallowing, etc). Those with cerebral palsy tend to also experience difficulty with sight/hearing, seizures, learning difficulties, mental health conditions (such as anxiety), and often have speech delay. This can be classified as neurodivergent (if it affects one's mind) and/or it can be classified as a physical disability. More information can be found here.
Some Genetic/Physical Syndromes (such as Down Syndrome) are classified as developmental disorders. This can be considered offensive, depending on the context, as many do not consider their syndromes to be disorders. Despite this, however, many genetic/physical syndromes do affect one's neurology, and thus can be considered neurodivergent (while not being classified as disorders).
Epilepsy is also sometimes classified as a developmental disorder, as well as certain physical disabilities (such as hearing loss/deafness) though physical impairments do not typically make an individual neurodivergent.
Dissociative Disorders (DDs) are conditions in which one has periods of heavy disconnect from thoughts, feelings, memories, reality, and/or sense of identity. These periods are often triggered by specific events, words, individuals, etc, and may cause a disrupt in everyday life, depending on how long the dissociation lasts. These disorders are typically caused by traumatic events.
There are multiple different types of dissociative disorders, which are discussed briefly in the following list:
- Depersonalization-Derealization Disorder (DPDR, DPD): a dissociative condition in which an individual has persistent and/or recurrent feelings of depersonalization and/or derealization. This condition is thought to be formed through childhood abuse, specifically neglect and emotional trauma. More information can be found here.
- Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID): a form of dissociative plurality characterized by experiencing amnesia between switches. More information can be found here.
- Fugue State, Dissociative Fugue, or Psychogenic Fugue: a dissociative condition in which one enters states of dissociation where they may lose sense of personal identity/memories/other defining traits. These states can last from hours to years, and are known as fugue states. Once one returns from a fugue state, they typically have all their memories intact. This condition is a result of trauma, typically childhood sexual abuse; however, other forms of trauma apply, and is unrelated to head/brain damage and systemhood. More information can be found here.
- Other Specified Dissociative Disorder (OSDD): a dissociative condition that may or may not be associated with plurality, depending on the type. More information can be found here. There are five types of OSDD, all of which are listed in the following:
- OSDD-1a: a form of dissociative plurality in which headmates are more blurred between one another, and appear to the outside as different 'modes' rather than different individuals.
- OSDD-1b: a form of dissociative plurality in which headmates do not experience amnesia between switches (they may still experience amnesia regarding trauma, though).
- OSDD-2: a dissociative disorder in which ones identity is altered from brainwashing, torture, thought reform, or otherwise coercion-based dissociation. This is typically formed from cults, captivity, and similar traumatic events. OSDD-2 is not typically associated with plurality; however, it can be in some cases.
- OSDD-3: a dissociative disorder in which one experiences extreme dissociative symptoms (amnesia, depersonalization/derealization, loss of skills/coordination, etc) directly after a traumatic event. This typically fades about a month after trauma has occurred; however, if future trauma occurs, the individual may experience it again. OSDD-3 is not typically associated with plurality; however, it can be in some cases.
- OSDD-4: a dissociative disorder in which one experiences dissociative trances that are without other causes (such as drug use) and cannot remember the time spent in these trances. OSDD-4 is not typically associated with plurality; however, it can be in some cases.
- Unspecified Dissociative Disorder (UDD): when one experiences symptoms of a dissociative disorder, but does not fit DPDR, Fugue State, DID, or OSDD. This means that one may have some (or most) of the symptoms associated with those disorders, but do not reach the full criteria, and thus fall under the UDD umbrella. UDD can also be associated with plurality; however, that is not always the case. More information on UDD can be found here.
Dysphoria is a discomfort/distress towards oneself due to a disconnect between their body/appearance/perceived self and their internal identity. Dysphoria can be categorized in multiple forms, which include the following:
- Gender Dysphoria: distress caused from a disconnect between one's gender identity and the gender they are perceived as.
- Body Dysphoria: distress caused from one's body being different than the body desired for an individual's gender identity.
- Mind Dysphoria: distress caused from thoughts or emotions that oppose an individuals gender identity.
- Social Dysphoria: distress caused from how others see one's gender identity, and whether or not they are being misgendered.
- Gender Dysmorphia: gender dysphoria that overlaps with body dysmorphia.
- Sex Dysphoria: distress caused from a disconnect between one's sex identity and the sex they were born as/physically are.
- Chest Sofrimento: distress towards one's chest (or breasts), as it is not the chest/breasts they desire
- Genital Sofrimento: distress towards one's genitals, as it is not the genitals they desire.
- Gonadal Sofrimento: distress towards one's gonads, as it is not the gonads they desire.
- NCST Sofrimento: distress towards secondary sex traits (such as muscle tone, nipples, Adam's apple, etc) as it is not the traits they desire.
- Pronodysphoria: distress caused from a disconnect between one's preferred pronouns and the pronouns that are used on the individual.
- Nomidysphoria: distress caused from a disconnect between one's preferred name(s) and the name that is used on the individual.
Eating Disorders (EDs) are conditions in which an individual has eating/weight issues due to distressing thoughts/feelings, compulsion, and/or bodily issues. This could cause overeating, under-eating (or even starvation), over-exercising, excessive (or purposeful) vomiting, and/or eating inedible objects. Many eating disorders form from trauma/traumatic events and/or stress/pressure; however, they may be formed for other reasons as well, and may even be tied to other disorders (ie: anxiety making it hard/impossible to eat properly).
There are multiple types of eating disorders, which are discussed briefly in the following list:
- Anorexia Nervosa/Anorexia: an eating disorder in which the individual restricts how much food they are consuming and tries to lose weight, as they have extremely distorted/poor body image issues. Many with anorexia see themselves as overweight, when in reality they are often underweight. Anorexia Athletica and Anorexia Mirabilis falls under the anorexia umbrella. More information on anorexia can be found here.
- Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID): an eating disorder in which the individual only eats (overly) specific food. This could be due to texture, appearance, smell, and/or taste of foods, and can be due to having another form of neurodivergence (such as OCD or autism) that makes them more 'picky.' This disorder is not based on having a negative body image. More information can be found here.
- Binge Eating Disorder (BED): an eating disorder characterized by episodes of intense binge eating that ends up with negative social and psychological results (such as shame, guilt, and similar emotions). More information can be found here.
- Bulimia Nervosa/Bulimia: an eating disorder in which the individual has episodes of binge eating; however, after binge-eating, they forcefully purge (vomit) the food consumed, sometimes vomiting more than necessary. Exercise Bulimia falls under the bulimia umbrella. More information on bulimia can be found here.
- Pica: an eating disorder in which the individual has the appetite/desire to consume non-nutritional objects (such as ice cubes, dirt, nails, paper, rocks, plastic, etc). Often times, these objects being consumed are toxic, dangerous, and/or indigestible. More information can be found here.
- Other Specified Feeding/Eating Disorder (OSFED): when one closely fits an eating disorder but does not fit the full diagnostic requirements. They may be considered "close enough" to a condition to be diagnosed as it (such as being diagnosed with Bulimia, despite not fitting all the symptoms). This includes atypical anorexia, atypical bulimia, atypical BED, Purging Disorder, and Night Eating Syndrome. More information can be found here.
- Unspecified Feeding/Eating Disorder (UFED): when one shows symptoms of an eating disorder but does not fit any subset enough to be diagnosed with a specific form of it. More information can be found here.
Rumination Syndrome also falls under the eating disorder category; however, it is based upon bodily functions rather than neurodivergence, and is better defined as a physical disability.
Epilepsy (Seizure Disorder) is a condition in which one has periods of sudden seizures (bursts of uncontrolled electrical energy between brain cells, that cause temporary abnormalities in muscle tone/movements, behaviors, sensations, and/or states of awareness). Seizures can occur for anyone under certain situations; however, with seizure disorders, they occur more often than normal, and often occur with specific triggers (ie: flashing lights) that would not cause seizures for individuals without seizure disorders.
More information can be found here.
Factitious Disorder is a condition characterized by an intense urge and/or compulsion to appear injured, sick, and/or disabled. Those with this disorder may also attempt to appear to have other mental conditions (for example, they may attempt to appear depressed).
Those with this disorder may know what they are doing is harmful; however, in some cases, they may not see any issue with their behaviors. This disorder is sometimes associated with trauma responses and/or intrusive thoughts (such as "I need to have more medical issues, otherwise my trauma won't seem like enough to others").
Those with this disorder often indulge in self-harm (including actions such as making oneself sick by eating spoiled food), faking symptoms, consistently going to medical professionals/doctors, and similar. A subset to this disorder is Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID)/Body Integrity Dysphoria, in which an individual has a strong urge to be disabled.
In some cases, the individual affected has the uncontrollable desire to make a loved one appear sick/disabled/injured. One example of this is Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy, in which a parent/caretaker has an intense urge to make a child appear ill.
The exact cause of this disorder is unknown; however, it is often found to be associated with childhood trauma. More information can be found here.
Intellectual Disabilities are conditions that cause ones mind to struggle with different aspects of learning/education. This differs from SLD, as instead of struggling with numbers or words, the individual struggles with functions/skills such as reasoning, planning, judgment, and thinking abstractly. Those with intellectual disabilities may be slower to learn these concepts.
Intellectual disabilities are caused by genetic differences, physical syndromes, alcohol/toxins, brain/head injury, seizure disorders, and can even form due to emotional/psychological factors, such as social deprivation.
More information can be found here.
Maladaptive Daydreaming, also known as Daydreaming Disorder or Maladaptive Daydreaming Disorder is a condition in which one experiences daydreams that are intense and highly distracting, often times dissociating from reality due to said daydreams. Those with this condition sometimes act out or speak the dialogue of said daydreams unknowingly, and can at times be completely unaware that their daydreams are not reality.
These daydreams could last for minutes to hours, and can be impairing to ones focus and functioning when one gets lost in them. More information can be found here.
Mood Disorders are conditions that affect one's mood, often altering their perception on emotions, and distorting their emotional state. Mood disorders are formed due to hormonal imbalances, head abnormalities/injury, and/or trauma.
There are multiple types of mood disorders, which are discussed briefly in the following list:
- Bipolar Disorder: a condition in which one experiences periods of extreme depression and experiences periods of manic euphoria, sometimes experiencing them directly after one another. More information can be found here.
- Cyclothymic Disorder: a condition that is the same as bipolar disorder, but with less intense moods (less intense depression and less intense euphoria). More information can be found here.
- Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD): a condition in those under 19 years of age, where there is high and persistent amounts of anger/irritability in their mood, often leading to explosive reactions. More information can be found here.
- Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) or Depression: a condition in which one experiences intense sadness, low mood, low self esteem, loss of interest, exhaustion, and/or physical pain without any clear cause. Depression often is long-lasting; however, it can come in episodes in some cases. More information can be found here.
- Persistent Depressive Disorder (PDD) or Dysthymia: a condition that is the same as major depressive disorder, but with longer lasting symptoms. More information can be found here.
- Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD): a condition that affects individuals that menstruate, in which 1-2 weeks before a period, there are intense episodes depression, anxiety, and/or distress. These upsetting symptoms are more intense than usual premenstrual symptoms. More information can be found here.
- Seasonal Affective Disorder: a condition in which one only experiences symptoms of depression during specific seasons (most commonly fall and winter). More information can be found here.
- Other Specified Depressive Disorder/Depressive Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (DD-NOS): when one closely fits a depressive disorder, but does not fit the full diagnostic requirements. They may be considered "close enough" to a condition to be diagnosed as it (such as being diagnosed with MDD, despite not fitting all the symptoms).
- Unspecified Depressive Disorder: when one shows symptoms of a depresive disorder, but does not fit any subset enough to be diagnosed with a specific form of it.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders are conditions in which one has obsessive thoughts and desires, and experiences compulsive behavior due to the obsessions. These disorders are often classified as being related to anxiety disorders, as the obsessive thoughts cause one to excessively worry, which is what causes the compulsive urges. Obsessive-compulsive disorders typically are related to genetics and hormonal imbalances.
There are multiple different types of learning disorders, which are discussed briefly in the following list:
- Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD): a condition in which the individual feels as though one or more parts of their body are "ugly," and they grow an obsession with trying to "fix" or alter it, often times participating in compulsive behavior, and excessively worry that those around them are viewing them with disgust/judgement. More information can be found here.
- Excoriation Disorder/Skin-Picking Disorder/Dermatillomania: a condition in which the individual has the compulsive desire to pick at one's skin to an extent in which a becomes an obsession, and can cause bleeding, lesions, and general harm. More information can be found here.
- Hoarding Disorder: a condition in which the individual has the compulsive desire to keep/stash away items, and the obsessive feelings to keep said items. This can cause a lot of mental, physical, and financial strain as the individual may stash their home/room from top to bottom in unneeded objects (and in some cases, animals). More information can be found here.
- Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD): a condition characterized by having specific repeating thoughts that cause compulsions (typically irrational thoughts and compulsions). Those with OCD may have thoughts such as "I need to tap the door five times before bed, or my family will die" or "if I do not wash the table every morning, I will get sick." More information can be found here.
- Trichotillomania/Hair-Pulling Disorder: a condition in which the individual has the compulsive desire to pull out ones hair to an extent in which a becomes an obsession. This may include facial hair, eyebrows, body hair, etc. This may cause bald spots, irritated skin, and similar. More information can be found here,
- Other Specified Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorder: when one closely fits an obsessive-compulsive disorder but does not fit the full diagnostic requirements. They may be considered "close enough" to a condition, while not fitting the full criteria (such as closely-fitting trichotillomania, but not fitting it entirely).
- Unspecified Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorder: when one shows symptoms of obsessive-compulsive thinking but does not fit any subset enough to be diagnosed with a specific form.
Personality Disorders (PDs) are conditions in which ones pattern of behavior, cognition, and inner experience is altered/abnormal in some way. Personality disorders form from hormonal imbalances, head injury/abnormalities, and/or trauma.
There are multiple types of personality disorders, which are discussed briefly in the following list:
- Antisocial Personality Disorder: a condition characterized by a lack of empathy and compulsive behavior that causes an individual to do harm to others, often times not realizing the harm and/or not feeling remorse for it. Those with this disorder are not 'evil' and cannot control the way their mind functions. Their lack of empathy may cause them to disregard others' distress, or even use it to their advantage (as they do not understand why it is wrong to do so). More information can be found here.
- Avoidant Personality Disorder (AvPD): a condition characterized by heightened insecurity and intense fear of being rejected, ridiculed, and embarrassed to the point of being unable or extremely hesitant to form bonds. More information can be found here.
- Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD): a condition characterized by a distorted sense of self, instability in relationships, and intense emotional reactions/mood swings. Those with BPD often experience paranoia, insecurity, impulsive desires, intense anger and/or suicidal thoughts, and often times have an extreme fear of separation/loneliness. More information can be found here.
- Dependent Personality Disorder (DPD): a condition in which the affected individual feels as though they are unable to be alone. They have intense fear of abandonment/rejection, are often easily distressed/hurt by disapproval, (most times) following others leads/demands, and often times rely on others decisions (rather than making their own). More information can be found here.
- Histrionic Personality Disorder (HPD): a condition in which the affected individual bases their self esteem/self image on others compliments, approval, and attention. Those with HPD tend to desire to be the center of attention, as they often feel insignificant/rejected if they are not. They are typically easily influenced, and thus tend to copy behaviors that 'popular' or 'more liked' individuals have (speech, movement, clothes, etc). More information can be found here.
- Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD): a condition in which the affected individual views themself as a priority (to an unhealthy extent). This often includes the lack of attention to how others may feel, intense feelings of self importance, a desire for constant approval/praise (followed by low self-esteem when not given approval/praise), and difficulty understanding when one is upset at them. More information can be found here.
- Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD): a condition characterized by an excessive need for orderliness, neatness, and perfection. Those with OCPD may spend an excessive amount of effort and time into being as perfect/orderly as possible, or keeping their surroundings as perfect as possible. Those with OCPD tend to see nothing wrong with their excessive needs, and often fail to realize the issue. More information can be found here.
- Paranoid Personality Disorder (PPD): a condition in which the affected individual has intense paranoia, pervasive distrust of those around them, and paranoid delusions. They consistently tend to believe they are in danger, and often times fear the world around them. More information can be found here.
- Schizoid Personality Disorder (SPD/SzPD): a condition characterized by an intense lack of interest/desire for relationships, detachment from those around them, apathy, selectiveness, and/or solitary nature. More information can be found here.
- Schizotypal Personality Disorder (STPD): a condition characterized by non-typical thought patterns, feelings of social anxiety, episodes of derealization, episodes of psychosis, and unconventional beliefs. Those with this disorder tend to feel uncomfortable keeping relationships, tend to have peculiar speech patterns, and often interpret things in an odd way. More information can be found here.
- Other Specified Personality Disorder: when one closely fits a personality disorder but does not fit the full diagnostic requirements. They may be considered "close enough" to a condition to be diagnosed as it (such as being diagnosed with SzPD, despite not fitting all the symptoms).
- Unspecified Personality Disorder: when one shows symptoms of a personality disorder but does not fit any specific subset enough to be diagnosed with a specific one.
Plurality, Systemhood, and/or Collectiveness is the experience of having one or more beings/entities sharing a body, as well as sharing a mind and (oftentimes) an innerworld inside the mind. Plurality is not a disorder (though it can overlap with disorders); however, due to the sharing of one's mind, it is considered a form of neurodivergence, as it is "not typical" to share one's mind (and body) with other beings, and this shared mind often processes things in a way neurotypical individuals cannot relate to/understand.
There is more detail on the functioning of plurality within the system page and on the Pluralpedia.
Postpartum- are conditions that are caused by child birth. Any müllerian and intersex Individualss that are able to give birth can be affected by these disorders if they decide to have/end up having children. The mental changes after birth are often related to hormonal changes and/or estrogen levels, as birth can affect both of those things.
There are multiple different postpartum- conditions, which are discussed briefly in the following list:
- Postpartum Anxiety: when one experiences intense anxiety for a few days - a few months after giving birth. Often times this anxiety is directed towards the child one gave birth to; however, it can be accompanied with anxiety towards other things as well. This anxiety is more than just newfound worry for ones child, and is far more mentally straining than expected parenthood worry. More information can be found here.
- Postpartum Depression: when one experiences intense depression (and/or sometimes apathy) for a few days - a few months after giving birth. Often times thee low moods are directed towards the child one gave birth to; however, it can be accompanied with depression/apathy towards other things as well. More information can be found here.
- Postpartum Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (Postpartum OCD): when one experiences obsessive and compulsive thoughts and behaviors for a few days - a few months after giving birth. Often times this is related to the obsessive desire to keep a baby safe; however, they can be related to other things as well. More information can be found here.
- Postpartum Psychosis: when one experiences psychosis (hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, rapid/manic mood swings, and similar) for a few days - a few months after giving birth. More information can be found here.
Psychotic Disorders are conditions in which one has trouble discerning reality and experiences hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, derealization, and similar. This often causes them to have unnatural and unexplainable behaviors, as they are experiencing an unreal state mixed with reality. Those with psychotic disorders may move in odd ways, speak in a chaotic manner/to things that aren't actually there, believe something is happening/someone said something when in reality it never happened, etc.
There are multiple different types of psychotic disorders, which are discussed briefly in the following list:
- Brief Psychotic Disorder: a condition characterized by sudden short-term episodes of psychotic behavior (delusions, hallucinations, out-of-character behavior, etc). More information can be found here.
- Delusional Disorder: a condition characterized by having strong delusions, often times on a daily basis. These delusions often cause paranoia, and can heavily affect one's relationships, behavior, and/or emotional stability. More information can be found here.
- Schizoaffective Disorder: a condition characterized by hallucinations, delusions, manic euphoria, and/or manic depression. More information can be found here.
- Schizophrenia: a condition characterized by hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thinking/functioning. This often causes extreme difficulty in everyday life and can strain relationships, work, school, and health (such as sleep, eating, emotional space, mental space, etc). More information can be found here.
- Schizophreniform Disorder: a condition that is the same as schizophrenia; however, it only lasts 1-6 months instead of a lifetime. More information can be found here.
Schizotypal personality disorder often is also included on this list, though it is best classified as a personality disorder rather than a psychotic disorder.
Psychological Syndromes are conditions that cause ones mind to function in a non-typical way, while not classifying as the conditions and/or disorders listed elsewhere on this page. (This does not include genetic syndromes and/or syndromes caused by damage/sickness, as those fall under their own categorizations.)
Syndromes included under this list include the following:
- Abandoned Child Syndrome: a condition affecting children who have lost one or more parents/caretakers. Common symptoms include alienation from surroundings, guilt, fear/uncertainty, clinginess to individuals (or objects) of comfort, sleep trouble/disorders, eating trouble/disorders, anxiety, depression, aggression/irritability, fatigue, and grief. This condition can persist into adulthood as well. More information can be found here.
- Alice In Wonderland Syndrome (AIWS/AWS): a condition in which one experiences distorted perception and disorientation. This includes objects/individuals appearing stretched out or smaller than average, objects/individuals appearing further away or closer than they are, sound distortion, time distortion (losing track of time or feeling as though time has slowed down), loss of limb control/poor coordination, and similar symptoms. The cause for this condition is unknown. More information can be found here.
- Battered Person Syndrome (most commonly affecting women, often called Battered Women Syndrome): a condition that is considered a subset to PTSD, specifically relating to long-term domestic physical abuse. The individual often feels helpless or guilty, in many cases blaming themself for the trauma/abuse being inflicted on them, while also holding symptoms of PTSD (reliving abuse through nightmares, unwanted/random memories of abuse, intrusive thoughts, and triggers). More information can be found here.
- Celebrity Worship Syndrome (CWS/CW): a condition in which one has obsessive and addictive thoughts and behaviors towards celebrities/famous individuals. This often includes obsessively being involved with spaces based around them, constantly checking for updates, and a desire to be involved in the celebrity's personal life. This goes beyond normal admiration for a celebrity and can cause distress for the individual as well as those around them. More information can be found here.
- Charles Bonnet Syndrome (CBS): a condition in which one experiences vivid hallucinations (or psuedohallucinations) as they lose their eyesight. These hallucinations can occur on a daily or weekly basis, and may happen multiple times in one day. The reason this occurs is due to ones brain trying to process the imagery input of the remaining eyesight, and misinterpreting it or filling in empty spaces with other images. More information can be found here.
- Delusional Misidentification Syndrome: a condition in which one has the delusional belief that someone/something has been altered, changed, or replaced in some way. This could be due to psychotic disorders, dementia, or similar conditions. It can also be due to brain damage.
- Capgras Syndrome/Delusion or Imposter Syndrome: a condition in which one has the delusional belief that one or more loved ones or peers have been replaced by an imposter, usually an imposter with harmful intent. This could cause one to show aggression and paranoia towards an individual they are close to, due to believing its not really them. More information can be found here.
- Cotard’s Delusion/Syndrome or Walking Corpse Syndrome: a condition in which one has the delusional belief that they are either dead/a corpse/a ghost, nonexistent, dying, or are missing pieces of their body. They may believe that things/individuals around them are also dead/nonexistent. More information can be found here.
- Fregoli Delusion: a condition in which one has the delusional belief that multiple individuals they have met are actually the same individual in disguise. Those with this delusion often believe that the 'disguised individual' is trying to harm them in some way. More information can be found here.
- Intermetamorphosis: a condition in which one has the delusional belief that an individual can transform into someone else both in appearance and personality (in simpler terms, shapeshift). Often times this leads to suspicion and paranoia towards the individual they have this delusion towards. More information can be found here.
- Mirrored-Self Misidentification: a condition in which one has the delusional belief that ones reflection is not of themself. They may believe it is a doppelgänger, demon, spirit, younger/older/altered version of themself, or similar. More information can be found here.
- Reduplicative Paramnesia: a condition in which one has the delusional belief that a place/location is duplicated, existing two places separately. For example, one may belief that the hospital in Florida (and possibly the individuals inside of it) are duplicated and residing in a Chinese city at the exact same time, with little to no differences between them besides location. More information can be found here.
- Syndrome Of Subjective Doubles/Subjective Doubles: a condition in which one has the delusional belief that they have a doppelgänger of themself that is interfering with their life/pretending to be them (often they believe this double is doing negative things, in order to frame them). More information can be found here.
- Diogenes Syndrome: a condition in which one has the compulsive desire to hoard, is apathetic/uninterested in self care and hygiene (including hygiene of their home, often leaving their home a mess) which sometimes includes a lack of feeding oneself. They often see nothing wrong with their behaviors, and in many cases have another form of neurodivergence (such as addictive disorders, depression, compulsive disorders, dementia, and similar). More information can be found here.
- Environmental Dependency Syndrome, Zelig Syndrome, or Zelig-Like Syndrome: a condition in which one relies on environmental cues to accomplish goals or task, to a non-typical extent. For example, one may stand outside of a door until someone asks/tells them to go inside, in which their mind activates. They may feel blank or empty until being "activated." Not much information is available on this syndrome, as cases are not common.
- Jerusalem Syndrome: a condition in which one has obsessive thoughts, delusions, and/or hallucinations related to religious concepts after (or while) visiting Jerusalem. This is typically due to one having a psychotic disorder that becomes 'activated' upon making a trip there and being exposed to excessive religious scenery/events. Often times the delusions/hallucinations are related to being/seeing a religious figure (such as being/seeing Jesus). Jerusalem was likely not the cause of the psychotic disorder, but rather influenced/activated it. While this syndrome is most common to Jerusalem, other religious locations (such as Mecca and Rome) have been noted to induce the same symptoms. More information can be found here.
- Kleine-Levin Syndrome (KLS): a condition in which one has episodes of hypersomnia (oversleeping/heavy sleepiness), disorientation, hallucinations, excessive eating, irritability, mood differences, and possibly an abnormal sex drive. These episodes tend to happen less and eventually dissipate as the individual grows older. The cause of this is typically a malfunction in the parts of the brain that govern sleep and appetite. More information can be found here.
- Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS): a condition that affects children (typically between 5-7 years of age) that causes them to suddenly struggle with understanding others speech and struggling to speak themself (they may go entirely mute or almost entirely mute). Those with LKS also tend to have seizures and/or a seizure disorder. More information can be found here.
- Memory Distrust Syndrome: a condition in which one doubts their own memory to an non-typical extent, usually to the point where they trust other individuals descriptions of their actions more than they trust their own memory. This is typically considered to be related to amnesia. More information can be found here.
- Musical Ear Syndrome (MES): a condition in which one hears music/singing that is not actually playing/happening. This could be a constant sound or it could be periodically. This usually follows hearing impairment, in which the brain fills the blanks with music (much like the visual aspects of CBS). More information can be found here.
- Olfactory Reference syndrome: a condition in which one compulsively believes that they have a terrible odor/smell (despite there being no or little evidence of this) and obsessively washes themself/uses perfumes or colognes to smell better. They may avoid social situations due to the believe that they smell badly and the fear of being mad fun of/hated for it. This can be considered a subset of other specified obsessive-compulsive and related disorder. More information can be found here.
- Oneiroid Syndrome: a condition in which one experiences vivid scenic hallucinations and/or delusions that kaleidoscopic in nature, while also experiencing catatonic symptoms and possibly delirium as well. These dream-like experiences are not always pleasant in nature, and can feel as though they are an alternate universe/dimension that is overlapping with reality. Those with this condition are often diagnosed with psychotic disorders as well. More information can be found here.
- Peter Pan syndrome: a condition affecting teens/adults in which one has trouble accepting that they are aging/growing up, to the point where it becomes unhealthy and can disrupt relationships. Those with this condition tend to have narcissistic traits (and may be diagnosed with NPD as well), a lack of interest/desire to have/keep a job, trouble making concrete plans/keeping plans, emotional outbursts that are unusual for adults/teens to have under stressful situations, fear of negativity, little/no interest in personal growth, the desire/expectation that they will be taken care of by others, and similar symptoms. The causes for this could be parental influence (overly protective parenting that makes one fear the world or overly permissive parenting that makes one believe they do not have to take care of things), and/or econimic influence. When one enables their negative symptoms, they are said to have Wendy Syndrome. More information can be found here.
- Rape Trauma Syndrome: a condition that is considered a subset to PTSD, specifically relating to sexual assault/sexual abuse/rape. The individual often experiences anxiety, depression, nausea, an intense desire to clean themself, confusion, sensitivity, fear/uncertainty, helpless, dissociation, detachment, and similar. They often experience trouble sleeping, trouble maintaining relationships, hypervigilance, while also holding the notable symptoms of PTSD (reliving trauma through nightmares, unwanted/random memories of trauma, intrusive thoughts, and triggers). They may also question their sexuality/sexual orientation as well. More information can be found here.
- Stockholm Syndrome: a condition in which an individual who has been kidnapped/captured/trapped by an abuser forms positive emotions towards their captor, sometimes even mentally jumping hoops in order to justify their captors actions, and in some cases idolizing them. This condition often forms in order to cope with the traumatic nature of the experience, and can affect the individual even after they are freed, in which they struggle to have a different view on their captor. The opposite of this (when a captor/abuser forms positive feelings towards their victim) is known as Lima Syndrome. More information can be found here.
- Truman Syndrome/The Truman Show Delusion: a condition in which an individual has the delusional belief that their life is just a staged TV show (ie: all their loved ones are actors and there are hidden cameras in their delusional belief). This most commonly accompanies psychotic disorders. More information can be found here.
Syndromes Caused By Substance Use also are included under this umbrella (such as Amotivational Syndrome). Almost every substance can cause unusual psychological responses or can cause ones mind to mimic the symptoms of different mental conditions when intoxicated.
Sensory Processing Disorder
Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) is a condition in which an individuals mind does not react to sensory information the way most individuals do. For example, one may get easily overwhelmed by sound, smell, touch, taste, texture, etc. Similarly, they may be underwhelmed, and desire extra stimulation.
There are multiple forms of SPD, which are discussed briefly in the following list:
- Sensory-Based Motor Disorder (SBMD): a condition in which the individual struggles with motor balance, posture, coordination, movement due to difficulties in sensory processing. More information can be found here. There are subsets to this condition, which includes the following:
- Dyspraxia or Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD): a subset to SBMD in which the affected individual struggles with movement, posture, balance, coordination and sometimes speech due to sensory processing. This condition is often described as an individual being "out of sync" with their surroundings. More information can be found here.
- Postural Disorder: a subset to SBMD in which the affected individual struggles with posture, standing, and walking and easily fatigues due to sensory processing More information can be found here.
- Sensory Discrimination Disorder (SDD): a condition in which the individual struggles with recognizing and interpreting sensory information. This could affect one sense (such as purely sound) or it could be multiple senses (such as affecting two senses, or affecting all senses). Often times those with SDD struggle to differentiate different aspects of their senses (such as struggling to differentiate background noise from a family member's voice, and thus being unable to properly hear what the individual is saying). More information can be found here.
- Sensory Modulation Disorder (SMD): a condition in which ones brain does not respond appropriately to the stimulus around an individual, and thus misfocuses said stimulus. For example, ones mind may focus intensely on sound, and may ignore other senses to do so, making sound overwhelming at that moment. More information on this and its subsets can be found here. The subsets to this condition includes the following:
- Sensory Craving: a condition in which ones mind desires frequent sensory stimulation, due to under-responsive sensory processing. For example, one may desire loud music, spicy foods, and consistent movement in order to stimulate their senses.
- Sensory Over-Responsivity: a condition in which ones sensory processing is heightened. For example, one may have a heightened sense of touch, and may find small amounts of physical contact to be stressful and overwhelming, or may find small bruises/cuts to be extremely painful.
- Sensory Under-Responsivity: a condition in which ones sensory processing is lower than usual. For example, one may not notice injuries, may not taste food unless it has extra spices, may not process sounds around them, etc.
Many with SPD experience multiple of the forms listed and/or are fluid between the forms listed. More information on SPD and its subsets can be found here.
Sleep Disorders are conditions that affect one's sleep and/or dreams in some way, shape, or form often in a negative manner (ie: causing one to lose sleep/have difficulty sleeping).
There are multiple different types of sleeping disorders, which are discussed briefly in the following list:
- Insomnia: a condition in which one finds it difficult or impossible to sleep. Those with this disorder often cannot fall asleep, or can only sleep for a short period of time. Episodes of insomnia can be long-lasting, or could come and go. More information can be found here.
- Narcolepsy: a condition in which excessive daytime sleepiness becomes an issue, and oftentimes (but not for all forms of narcolepsy) an individual can have 'sleep attacks' in which they suddenly pass-out at random. These sleep attacks can come at anytime, and can be dangerous if they occur in public spaces (such as while crossing a street). More information can be found here.
Parasomnias are a group of sleeping disorders in which one experiences unnatural behaviors in ones mind or body when asleep. More information can be found here. The subsets to this condition include the following:
- Non–Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Arousal Disorders: parasomnias that occur during the three stages of sleep (also known as the Non-REM period of sleep). This has multiple subsets, which includes the following:
- Sleep Terrors: a condition in which one experiences episodes of screaming, intense fear, and flailing in their sleep. These episodes are completely unrelated to nightmares, and are not caused by nightmares. Sleep terrors are common in children, and can be outgrown; however, they may pose an issue if they remain, and can be classified as a disorder if consistent enough. Sleep terrors can interrupt ones sleep, and often times those who experience sleep terrors can begin sleep walking if untreated. More information can be found here.
- Sleep Walking: a condition in which one has episodes where they get up, walk around, and sometimes even participate in tasks (sometimes these tasks are drastic, such as driving) all while being fully asleep. The individual may talk during these episodes, and/or may have their eyes open, making them appear awake when they are in reality fully asleep. This condition can be life threatening, especially if one participates in tasks that could put themself or others at risk. Occasional sleep walking is not considered a disorder, and is common amongst children and teens; however, if it continues and is consistent, it can be classified as a disorder. More information can be found here.
- Confusional Arousals: a condition in which one experiences episodes of disoriented behavior and confusion, and behaves in a wake-like manner, while not technically awakening. This is different than than typical confusion/drowsiness when awakening, as these episodes can happen at any time, and often occur within two hours after falling asleep. More information can be found here.
- Sleep-Related Eating Disorder (SRED): a condition in which one consumes food—often times, food one would usually not eat, such as slices of butter—during sleep-walking periods. This disorder can be dangerous, as it can cause one to consume toxic materials, consume things they are allergic to, and/or cause one to choke. More information can be found here.
- Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder: parasomnias that occur after the three stages of sleep (also known as the REM period of sleep). This has multiple subsets, which includes the following:
- Nightmare Disorder: a condition in which one experiences intense nightmares on a nightly basis, rarely (or never) experiencing positive dreams. Nightmare disorder can cause extreme distress, and can make an individual hesitant to sleep. More information can be found here.
- Recurrent Isolated Sleep Paralysis (RISP): a condition in which one experiences (typically daily/nightly) episodes of sleep paralysis (an inability to move, speak, and/or hallucinations upon awakening from sleep). Sleep paralysis caused by drug use, other conditions, and/or narcolepsy does not classify one for RISP. Some individuals experience sleep paralysis in an uncommon fashion (such as one-two times within their entire life) which often does not qualify them for RISP. More information can be found here.
- REM sleep behavior disorder (RSBD): a condition in which has episodes of acting out and possibly verbalizes dreams/nightmares (often unpleasant ones) during the REM period of sleep, (a period of sleep where ones body does not typically move much or at all). One with RSBD typically has this behavior every night. More information can be found here.
- Other Parasomnias: parasomnias that are unrelated to specific sections/stages of sleep.
- Catathrenia: a rare condition in which one groans/moans during sleep (most commonly during the REM period, but not always). It is considered the opposite of snoring, which is associated with breathing-in, while catathrenia is associated with breathing-out. It is unknown what the cause of this condition is, and thus it is unknown if this condition is neurodivergent, a physical condition, or both. More information can be found here.
- Exploding Head Syndrome (EHS): a condition in which one hears loud noises (such as explosions, screams, lightning, cymbals, etc) that are not actually there, that cause one to wake up. These sounds seem real to the individual awaking from them; however, they are simply within ones mind. The cause and reasoning for this condition is unknown. In some cases, the sounds are accompanied by false sights as well (such as bright lights). More information can be found here.
- Sexsomnia: a condition in which one behaves sexually in their sleep. This includes masturbation, talking dirty, thrusting, sexually touching an individual sharing a bed with them, etc. Those with sexsomnia are unaware of this sexual behavior, and may only discover their behavior through someone else telling them, or due to whatever is left over (being undressed, sexual output, etc). when awakening. More information can be found here.
- Sleep-Related Hallucinations: a condition in which one experiences hallucinations upon waking up. These hallucinations can last several seconds to several minutes. More information can be found here.
Other sleep disorders include Restless Leg Syndrome and Sleep Apnea, but they are better classified as physical disabilities/conditions. Bed-wetting is often considered a parasomnia as well; however, it is typically only associated with children and/or with physical conditions rather than mental ones.
Somatic Symptom Disorder
Somatic Symptom Disorder is a condition in which one has obsessive and anxious thoughts regarding having physical or mental conditions one does not have. For example, one may have an extreme and strong belief that they have cancer, and may take small physical signs (such as a shortness of breath) to be proof of this belief. They may believe they have mental conditions, disabilities, injuries, and/or illnesses that they do not, and often times they seek out medical attention for this.
More information can be found here.
Specific Learning Disorder
Specific Learning Disorder (SLD) is a condition in which an individual struggles in one of three; reading, writing, or math. This isn't normal trouble with learning, as it surpasses typical struggles, and can be mentally distressing/difficult. More information on this (as well as its three subsets) can be found here.
- Dyscalculia: an SLD in which the individual has unusual struggles with math and numbers.
- Dysgraphia: an SLD in which the individual has unusual struggles with writing (ie: issues with handwriting, spelling, grammar, punctuation).
- Dyslexia: an SLD in which the individual struggles with reading, often seeing the letters in a rearranged or disorienting manner, and being unable to process them quickly (or at all).
Speech Disorders are conditions that affect ones speech (speaking patterns, pronunciation, etc) in some way, typically causing difficulty for the one speaking (and possible those listening as well). Speech disorders are not always neurodivergent in nature, and are sometimes related to physical factors (such as verbal cord development) which may also classify them as disabilities.
There are multiple different types of speech disorders, which are discussed briefly in the following list:
- Aphasia: a condition in which one loses their ability to properly verbally communicate due to brain damage. This could be due to a stroke, head injury, tumor, and/or disease. It may also affect one's ability to complete sentences, make logical/coherent sentences, and/or write. More information can be found here.
- Apraxia Of Speech/Speech Apraxia: a condition in which one struggles in speech, due to ones brain being unable to properly plan and sequence the required speech movements. The individual's brain knows what it would like to say, but is just incapable of doing so properly. More information can be found here.
- Neurogenic Stuttering: a condition in which one has consistent struggles with stuttering, and has a tendency to stutter a lot. This could be due to a stroke, head injury, brain tumors/cysts, diseases, genetic syndromes, drugs/medications, or similar. More information can be found here.
- Palilalia: a condition in which one compulsively repeats words/syllables/phrases. This could be repeating ones own words/syllables/phrases ("I am, I am, I am okay.") or it could be repeating another individual's words/syllables/phrases ("are you okay?" "kay, kay...") Those with this condition typically are unaware of their repetitive vocalizations; however, they may be aware in some cases (but still are unable to stop it regardless). This disorder usually affects children; however, it can be found occasionally in adults. More information can be found here.
Dysarthria is another speech disorder; however, it is related to physical conditions rather than psychological/mental ones.
Synesthesia is a condition in which information that is supposed to stimulate one sense, instead stimulates multiple senses. For example, a smell may stimulate both sense of smell and sight, rather than only stimulating smell. Synesthesia is not considered a disorder, and while it can cause a sense of isolation and/or annoyance for synesthetes (depending on the form it takes), it is typically seen as something interesting and unique by the individual experiencing it.
There are an unknown amount of synesthesia forms, as it can be any combination of senses, with many forms of physical responses. Despite this, there are forms of synesthesia that are commonly known/understood, which are discussed briefly in the following list:
- Auditory-Tactile Synesthesia: when certain sounds induce certain sensations in the body. This could be shivers, chills, muscle clenching, waves of pleasure, etc. For example, someone may feel a jolt down their spine upon hearing bells. More information can be found here.
- Chromesthesia: when certain sounds cause someone to see certain colors. For example, whistling may cause an individual to see the color pink in their mind or blurring their vision. More information can be found here.
- Grapheme-Color Synesthesia: when certain letters or numbers are seen as shaded in specific colors. For example, an individual may always see the number 8 shaded in green, no matter where the 8 is written. More information can be found here.
- Lexical-Gustatory Synesthesia: when certain words induce specific tastes. For example, the word phone might induce the taste of cheese. These tastes are not always pleasant, and can be disgusting/revolting. More information can be found here.
- Mirror-Touch Synesthesia: when one feels the same sensation another individual does upon witnessing it. For example, if someone with this form of synesthesia witnesses a child scrape their arm, they would feel pain on their arm as well. This can apply to physical touch, sickness, and similar. Those with mirror-touch are known/discovered to have higher amounts of empathy than an average individual. More information can be found here.
- Number Form: when one gets mental imagery of a map of numbers in every time they see a number. For example, one may see a swirl of numbers, or a square of numbers, and the map is typically the same every time. More information can be found here.
- Ordinal Linguistic Personification: when ordered sequences (months, week-days, alphabetical letters, the order of numbers, etc) causes one to think of specific personalities or genders. For example, the day of Friday may make one thing of a kind little girl. This is not voluntarily, and is not just imagination, as every sequence causes these associations. More information can be found here.
- Spatial Sequence Synesthesia (SSS): when one sees ordinal sequences (such as months, numbers, letters, or any other sequence) as points in space. For example, one may see numbers as a spiral and the days of the week as a column. More information can be found here.
If one wishes for an up-to-date list of discovered forms of synesthesia, they can find the list here.
Thought Disorders (TDs) are conditions that cause a disturbance in one's cognition, and thus causes adverse use of language/communication. The term "thought disorder" is typically used in reference to disorganized thinking, Thought disorders are commonly found in those with psychosis, schizophrenia, and other psychotic disorders; however, they can also be found in individuals without psychotic symptoms.
More information on thought disorders can be found here.
Tic Disorders are conditions in which one has uncontrollable movements, twitches, and/or sounds that they do repeatedly, without it being purposeful. How often one tics can vary from once a day to once a minute, and every form of tic is different. Many individuals have offensive tics (ie: spewing out racial-slurs at random). Those with offensive tics should not be blamed for their ticcing, as it is not something that they do voluntarily.
There are multiple different types of tic disorders, which are discussed briefly in the following list:
- Persistent/Chronic Motor or Vocal Tic Disorder: a tic disorder characterized by having motor tics or vocal tics (but not both at the same time). More information can be found here.
- Provisional Tic Disorder: a tic disorder characterized by one (or more) motor and/or vocal tics. More information can be found here.
- Tourette's Syndrome: a tic disorder characterized by having two (or more) motor and vocal tics, although they may not happen at the same time (though they often do). More information can be found here.
- Other Specified Tic Disorder (OSTD): when one closely fits a tic disorder but does not fit the full diagnostic requirements. They may be considered "close enough" to a tic disorder to be diagnosed as it (such as being diagnosed with tourette's syndrome, despite not fitting all the symptoms). More information can be found here.
- Unspecified Tic Disorder: when one shows symptoms of a tic disorder but does not fit any subset enough to be diagnosed with a specific one.
Trauma Disorders are conditions that formed due to traumatic events, as trauma can shift ones mind/psychology in order to cope, or because ones mind is unsure how to handle the events. Trauma disorders typically include feelings of distress and can be difficult to deal with in everyday life.
There are multiple different types of trauma disorders, which are discussed briefly in the following list:
- Acute Stress Disorder: a disorder very similar to PTSD; however, it is accompanied by dissociation. More information can be found here.
- Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder (DSED): a disorder experienced by children, characterized by trust for and interaction with strangers (such as leaving with a stranger, approaching a stranger, sitting on a strangers lap, etc). This is most often due to abuse or neglect from parental figures/caretakers; however, it (rarely) is due to other factors as well. More information can be found here.
- Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): a disorder in which one experiences extreme distress after a traumatic event, often reliving it through nightmares, unwanted/random memories, intrusive thoughts, and triggers. Those with PTSD often feel as though they are physically reliving the event when triggered, as if they have entered a memory, and they tend to repress the events/memories until triggered. C-PTSD is when the disorder formed from repeated traumatic events (such as daily or weekly abusive behaviors). More information on PTSD can be found here. Evidence suggests PTSD may possibly be inheritable from parents (read more here).
- Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD): a disorder formed when a child does not establish healthy relations with caretakers/parents, and thus has their behaviors and emotional attachment disrupted. Unlike DSED, those with RAD tend to avoid forming bonds/seeking interaction, and are highly withdrawn. More information can be found here.
- Other Specified Trauma/Stressor-Related Disorder: when one closely fits a trauma disorder but does not fit the full diagnostic requirements. They may be considered "close enough" to a condition to be diagnosed as it (such as being diagnosed with RAD, despite not fitting all the symptoms). More information can be found here.
- Unspecified Trauma/Stressor-Related Disorder: when one shows symptoms of a trauma dsorder but does not fit any specific subset enough to be diagnosed with a specific one.Adjustment disorders are sometimes also classified under this list, depending on if they are traumatic in nature.
Brain Deterioration/Head Trauma
Brain Deterioration and Head Trauma can, in many cases, affect one's neurology and cause neurodivergent ways of functioning. Sometimes head damage can be undone, and thus the neurodivergent functioning can be reversed; however, in most cases the damage has a lasting affect, and the individual falls under the neurodivergent umbrella for the remainder of their life.
This includes concussion, head-injury, concussions, brain diseases, tumors, aneurysms, and similar conditions that effects ones brain/head. All of these can potentially cause one to be neurodivergent; however, they do not always end up as such, depending on the section of the brain damaged/affected.
One who has conditions that affect both their physical capabilities and mental functioning can identify themself as both neurodivergent and disabled if they see fit. This includes conditions such as apraxia, ataxia, some neurodegenerative disorders, some nervous system diseases, and other conditions.
While headaches in of themselves are not a neurodivergent experience, there are forms of intense headaches that may be classified as such. The coiner of the term neurodivergent mentioned that they have cluster headaches, which they themself classified as neurodivergent, confirming this.
Migraines are forms of headaches that causes extreme pain (usually on one side of the head; however, it may be both sides). It is often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and/or extreme sensitivity to lights/sounds. Migraines can also cause difficulty with motor control (even temporary paralysis in some cases), temporary blindness, physical sensations (such as tingling), speaking difficulty, and hallucinations/visual disturbances.
Migraines can last for an hour, a day, multiple days, or even weeks in some cases, and medication is typically a necessity to decrease these migraines. Migraines can also cause intense mood changes and can potentially cause other physical disturbances (such as excessive urinating).
Migraines can affect anyone, and it is estimated that 1 in 3 households have an individual that have experienced a migraine. Migraines can be caused/activated from head injury, stress, hormonal changes, weather changes, medications, foods/drinks, physical factors, and sensory stimuli.
More about migraines can be found here.
Cluster Headaches are forms of headaches that happen in a periodical manner (known as cluster periods) in which one has intense pain on one side of the head/around one eye or possible around the neck. This can cause excessive facial sweating, redness/a drooping eyelid in the affected eye, a stuffy/runny nose on the affected side, swelling, pale skin or flushing, and/or excessive tearing.
Cluster periods usually last from several weeks to a month, and the pain can be eased with medication during this time. An attack can last from 15 minutes-3 hours, and often occur at the same time each day during the cluster periods. This is a rarer condition than migraines, and affects around 1 in 1,000 individuals.
More about cluster headaches can be found here.
Alternormative: social and communication norms that exist outside of neurotypical spaces.
- ADHDer: an individual with ADHD.
- Autist: an autistic individual.
- Delusion: when an individual believes something is true/real, despite having little (or no) evidence. This is often due to paranoia, extreme anxiety, and/or psychotic disorders.
- Delusional Attachment/DA: term that psychotics have coined to describe the type of delusion of grandeur where someone has delusions that they are a fictional character, an animal, an object, another person, or any kind of being outside of being human. It is a form of psychosis, and is typically episodical. More information can be found here.
- Depersonalization: feeling detached from oneself (often times feeling dreamlike, vague, less real, outside of reality, or insignificant). This can sometimes lead to an out of body experience; however, that is not always the case. Often times depersonalization comes in short episodes/periods of time; however, it can be long lasting.
- Derealization: feeling as though the world around oneself is fake/unreal. Some may feel like they are the only existing concept, or they may experience depersonalization at the same time, and feel as though everything is unreal/fake. Often times derealization comes in short episodes/periods of time; however, it can be long lasting.
- Differbility/Diffability: an alternate word for "disability," as many neurodivergent individuals dislike calling their conditions disabilities.
- Echolalia, Movie Talk, Scripting: when an autistic individual repeats something they hear another individual saying (usually unintentionally).
- Flashback: a sudden and strong re-experiencing of a past event. This event could be happy, sad, or any other emotion. Flashbacks are not exclusive to neurodivergent Individuals; however, they are more common for those that are neurodivergent.
- Hallucination: when an individual experiences something that is not real, but feels real/seems real. This could be seeing something that isn't there, hearing something that isn't there, feeling something that isn't there, tasting something that isn't there, etc. This could cause extreme confusion and questioning on reality, as it can be near impossible to tell what is real when hallucinations happen. Hallucinations often partner psychotic disorders.
- Hoarding/Hoarder/Hoarded: terms exclusive to those with hoarding disorders, in which they obsessively keep/collect things. Hoarding is often called "selfish" and "shameful," which negatively impacts those with hoarding disorders, as it implies that they are bad individuals for having a disorder. Because of this, many hoarders use these terms as a way of reclamation.
- Hyperlexia: when an individual has the ability to read at an unusually young age.
- Hyperfixation: being intensely and completely immersed in something (media, fiction, a concept, a subject, an object, etc) due to neurodivergence.
- Hypersensitivity/Hyperresponsiveness: when an individual is extra sensitive to a certain sense than usual (either all the time or under certain situations).
- Hyposensitivity/Hyporesponsiveness: when an individual is less sensitive to a certain sense than usual (either all the time or under certain situations).
- Idiosyncratic Language: a language that has private meanings, only understood by autistic Individuals.
- Immersive Daydreaming: fantasizing in a state of dissociative absorption.
- Insomniac: an individual with insomnia.
- Mania: an abnormally elevated state of emotional energy (typically referring to abnormal amounts of euphoria; however, it can also refer to negative emotions as well).
- Neurodiverse/Neurodiversity: the concept/fact that all individuals are different. The Neurodiversity Movement is a social movement promoting the normality of mental differences, and how all minds function differently.
- Neurominority: under-represented groups in the neurodivergent community.
- Non-Verbal: someone who does not speak or write. This could be permanent or temporary depending o the individual and their mind. It is often associated with neurodivergence and/or trauma.
- On The Spectrum: someone on the autistic spectrum.
- Panic Attack: a severe anxiety attack, in which one struggles to breathe, concentrate, move and/or stay still when one is triggered. This can cause dizziness, hyperventilation, extreme fear/worry about their surroundings/acquaintances/health, and similar extreme symptoms, More information on panic attacks can be found here.
- Para: a character in the daydreams of an immersive daydreamer and/or daydreams of a maladaptive daydreamer. Preveras/Parabonds are self-aware paras, typically ones that have autonomy. In some occasional cases, veritbonds become headmates in ones mind, thus making one a system (or adding onto ones systemhood.) Veritbonds are beings in immersive/maladaptive daydreams that the daydreamer feels a deeper connection with than just being a para. A Parame is a point of view para, while a Paraself is an alternate version of the daydreamer.
- Paracosm: a detailed imaginary world. This term isn't exclusively neurodivergent, however it is often used by maladaptive daydreamers to describe the worlds they daydream, and is occasionally used by systems to describe their headspaces.
- Psuedohallucination: a hallucination that, while seeming real, can be identified as fake by the individual experiencing it. For example, the individual may see and hear a large dog walking around their house; however, they know that it is not plausible, and is simply imagery formed from the mind, due to the fact that their house is completely inaccessible to the outside.
- Semi-Verbal: someone that is between non-verbal and full-verbal, possibly fluctuating between the two (Verbalflux.) It is often associated with neurodivergence and/or trauma. Limited-Verbal is a term similar to this, where someone is full-verbal, but their usage of language is limited.
- Special Interest: a term for autistic individuals, in which they become intensely interested in something, similar to a hyperfixation.
- Stimming (Self-Stimulating): behaviors that help a neurodivergent (typically autistic) individual concentrate or calm down. This could be fidgeting, whistling, tapping, etc. These can sometimes be potentially harmful behaviors, (such as hitting ones head). More information can be found here.
- Synesthete: an individual with synesthesia.
Triggers are something (a word, sentence, individual, media, concept, sound, smell, feeling, etc) that causes one's mind to have an intense (usually negative) uncontrolled response.
The three types of triggers are listed below:
- Trauma Trigger: a trigger that causes a trauma response, as this trigger is (in some way) related to/correlated with the individuals trauma. Trauma triggers typically cause one to experience flashbacks of the traumatic experience.
- Negative Trigger: a trigger that causes a negative reaction (physical or mental). For example, a trigger that causes someone's anxiety to spike up.
- Positive Trigger: a trigger that causes a positive reaction (physical or mental). For example, a trigger that helps stop a depressive episode.
- Switching Trigger/Fronting Trigger: a trigger that causes a switch in whos fronting (for systems).
Triggers can be just about anything, and are not chosen. Triggers can be worked through, which is helpful for negative/trauma triggers, especially if they are related to unavoidable or sensitive topics (such as parents, religion, etc). However, despite this, one should not judge an individuals triggers, as many individuals do not have the therapists/psychologists/help available to work through triggers, and/or they have traumatic experiences towards psychologists/medical spaces, and struggle to get help because of it.
Trigger Warnings (TWs) are used in text/posts in order to avoid triggering an individual. Common trigger warnings are related to common traumatic experiences (such as abuse, assault, blood, etc); however, some trigger warnings are more specific (such as brother, food, etc). Some things should not be given a trigger warning (such as an individual's race/ethnicity, endogenic systems, alterhumans, etc), as it becomes exclusionary (and can come off as hateful/oppressive in nature). If one has a trigger towards a marginalized group, the individual should work on their trigger, rather than making marginalized individuals feel negatively for being who they are. The individual with the trigger should not be blamed for their trigger; however, they should be held responsible for seeking help/change, and should not be encouraged to use such TWs focused on marginalized groups.
Content Warnings (CWs) are used in text/posts in order to avoid sensitive content (that is potentially triggering, but is usually not a trigger). Common content warnings are negative experiences (needles, yelling, etc). CWs can be triggering and TWs can be upsetting, so often times the two overlap. For example, someone may be triggered by needles and be uncomfortable with abuse and vice versa.
Warning: This section has distressing topics, some of which may be triggering to those with backgrounds of self-harm (or those with loved ones with a background of self-harm). Please skip over this section if one feels they are at risk of being triggered.
Self-Harm (SH) is the act of harming oneself, typically physically; however, it can be mentally as well. This includes cutting, starving, overeating, bruising/scratching/irritating one's skin, using drugs/alcohol, self-isolation, mentally tormenting oneself, purposefully triggering oneself, purposefully getting oneself sick (or making oneself sicker), refusing medication, overmedicating, etc. Any act of harming ones own body, mentality, and/or emotional state can count as self-harm.
Some self-harm can be life threatening and can lead to suicide (the act of taking one's own life). Other self-harm is not life-threatening, but it's still traumatic regardless, and should be taken just as seriously.
Self-harm can become addicting and can be difficult to get away from. Recovery from self-harm can be difficult and in many cases therapy/counseling is needed; however, a supportive community and encouragement can also lead one to recovery as well (and/or the combination of therapy and a supportive community).
Self-harm can also be undesired or non-purposeful. For example, an individual with psychosis may scratch their arms while thinking they are warding off an enemy (which is actually a hallucination). This can be just as traumatic and/or dangerous as purposeful self-harm.
Tone Tags or Tone Indicators are tools coined by the neurodivergent community in order to communicate what tone, behavior, and/or intention they are trying to share over text/messaging/online communication. This is because many neurodivergent individuals tend to struggle with deciphering implications, especially online.
Tone tags are useful in many ways. They help neurodivergent individuals feel safer/less anxiety, help promote communication, and can even be helpful for neurotypical individuals as to not misinterpret something said over messages/online. Tone tags are encouraged to use by all individuals, as they are important tools amongst the community.
Below is a comprehensive list of tone tags. Each will be followed by an example on how to use said tags.
Positive tone tags:
- /Exc or /Exci: excited tone (ie: "we are going to the park today! /exc")
- /Hap: happy tone (ie: "I got the glasses I wanted today. /hap")
- /Pos: positive connotation (ie: "my best friend got married today! /pos")
Non-serious and playful tone tags:
- /F: fake (ie: "the world is flat /f")
- /Hj: half-joking behavior (ie: "you are always late, George! /hj")
- /Ij: referencing an inside joke (ie: "remember that cup? /ij")
- /J: joking behavior (ie: "Everyone knows I am a genius! /J")
- /Lh: light-hearted behavior (ie: "you scared me to death, Gulia! /lh")
- /Nsrs: not-serious behavior (ie: "don't talk to me ever again. /nsrs")
- /S or /Sarc: sarcastic behavior (ie: "yeah, I definitely didn't want to hug you. /s")
- /Hs or /Halfsar: half-sarcastic behavior (ie: "I totally didn't think that. /hs")
- /Slur: words that aren't actually slurs, but are being jokingly treated in that way (ie: "ha, you're a chicken! /slur") Some are uncomfortable with this, and in messaging, this should not be done without consulting in what the other individual thinks/feels about it.
- /T: teasing behavior (ie: "it was 'just' a lunch huh? /t")
- /Th: a jokingly-threatening behavior (ie: "you better hide tomorrow, cuz I'm gonna hug the life out of you! /th")
Serious tone tags:
- /G or /Gen: genuine behavior (ie: "I really am sorry for what I have done, and hope we can grow past this. /g")
- /Gq or /Genq: genuine-question (ie: "hey, I don't understand xenogenders. Can you explain your experience to me? /gq")
- /Grq or /Genrq: genuine-request (ie: "could you set up the table before I get home? /grq")
- /Hsrs: a half-serious tone (ie: "I cant understand why someone would be mad about that. /hsrs")
- /Srs: serious tone (ie: "could you respond to your mother? Something happened today. /srs")
Negative tone tags:
- /Ang: angered tone (ie: "I am not stupid. /ang")
- /Ann: annoyed tone (ie: "stop sending me those memes. /ann")
- /Conc: concerned tone (ie: "are you feeling alright? /conc")
- /Lm: little-mad tone (ie: "are you trying to imply something about my friend? /lm")
- /Neg: negative connotation (ie: "my mom grounded me today. /neg")
- /Sann: slightly-annoyed tone (ie: "will you stop teasing me? /sann")
- /Up: upset tone (ie: "individuals keep making fun of my identity... /up")
- /Vann: very-annoyed tone (ie: "I told you not to talk about that! /vann")
- /Vm: very-mad tone (ie: "stop talking about my sister like that! /vm")
- /Vu: very-upset tone (ie: "the way my sibling treats me makes me feel like I don't matter... /vu")
- /Vw: very-worried tone (ie: "why hasn't Ivy been responding today? Are fae feeling okay? /vw")
- /W: worried tone (ie: "My grandpa is sick... /w")
Symptoms-based tone tags:
- /Anx or Anxi: an anxious tone/behavior (ie: "I hate walking through crowds... /anx")
- /Fb: having a flashback (ie: "I didn't want to be with my mother that day... /fb")
- /Nerv: nervous tone (ie: "what if something bad happens to my aunt? /nerv")
- /Sympt: symptom (ie: "my head hurts so badly! /sympt")
- /Trig: a medical/trauma trigger (ie: "stop saying that, please! /trig")
Attractional tone tags:
- /A: alterous implications (ie: "we should hang out this weekend! /a")
- /Aff: affectionate tone (ie: "you're the nicest joyfriend, you know that? /aff")
- /Fam: familial implications (ie: "you're a blessing in my life /fam")
- /Nsx: no sexual intent (ie: "you and I should meet up alone tomorrow /nsx")
- /P: platonic implications (ie: "you are my favorite friend. /p")
- /Qp: queerplatonic implications (ie: "would you like to move in with me? /qp")
- /R: romantic implications (ie: "I love you. /r")
- /Sens: sensual implications (ie: "we should cuddle up at that slumber party later. /sens")
- /Sx: sexual intent (ie: "wanna come over to my house tonight? /sx")
- /Cont: continued in the next post/comment (ie: "...now that I'm finished with my first point, lets move on to the next. /cont")
- /Em: empathizing (ie: "I can't believe that happened to Brittany, it hurts to see zem so upset... /em")
- /Gs: general statement (ie: "we hate it when someone says things about individuals bodies. /gs")
- /Js: just-saying (ie: "society could be kinder, y'know. /js")
- /Nai: not an insult (ie: "you're just as good at piano as I am at painting! /nai")
- /Nav: not a vent (ie: "I had the wildest day /nav")
- /Nbr: not being rude (ie: "are you struggling with any of your school subjects? /nbr")
- /Nf: not forced (ie: "get off your computer and go outside. /nf)
- /Ngt: not guilt-tripping (ie: "I think you have room to improve your behavior, but I'm not mad at you. /ngt")
- /Nm: not mad (ie: "hey, in the future, can you say m-spec instead of 'bisexual spectrum?' /nm")
- /Nmaa: not mad at anyone (ie: "please make sure you& don't cuss around my cousins. /nmaa")
- /Npa: not passive-aggressive (ie: "I understand that you missed the game. I hope to see you next time. /npa")
- /Npi: no pun intended (ie: "you know firebender Zuko from Avatar: The Last Airbender? He sure is hot! /npi")
- /Pi: pun intended (ie: "wow, that scarecrow is outstanding in his field! /pi")
- /Safe: safe to open/read (ie: "hey, can you give me your opinions on this image? /safe")
- /Sym: sympathizing (ie: "I feel so bad for Jeremy's loss. /sym")
- /V: vent (ie: "something happened today, and now I'm emotional /v")
- /C: copypasta (ie: "I went to Taco Bell and tried to spend a $2 bill, and the cashier had no idea what it was and called the cops. /c")
- /Hyp: hyperbole (ie: "they run faster than the wind! /hyp")
- /Info: a tag used when coining a term or discussing info (ie: "pufferfish have excellent eyesight! /info")
- /Li or /Lit: literally (ie: "my kitten is sleeping on the couch /li")
- /Ly or Lyr: lyrics (ie: "I'm on the right track, baby, I was born this way! /ly")
- /Ot: off topic (ie: "did you see that red dog on the street this morning? /ot")
- /Q: quote (ie: "everywhere is my studio! /q")
- /Ref: references (ie: "its like the scary chefs' kitchen! /ref")
- /Rh: rhetorical question (ie: "can birds fly? /rh")
Tags that imply directness:
- /Ay: directed at you (ie: "do you want to be friends? /ay")
- /Nah: not directed at anyone here (ie: "someone called me stupid. /nah")
- /Nay: not directed at you (ie: "that man today was really rude. /nay")
- /Nbh: directed at nobody here (ie: "I hope my ex-friend stops talking to me. /nbh")
- /Nmah: not mad at anyone here (ie: "I am so angry today! /nmah")
- /Nmay: not mad at you (ie: "sorry if I am aggressive, I'm a bit mad. /nmay")
- /Apa or /Apath: apathetic tone (ie: "I'm not happy or sad right now. /apa")
- /Conf: confused tone (ie: "what are you talking about? /conf")
- /Neu: neutral tone (ie: "my day was alright. /neu")
- /Uil: using I lightly (ie: "I decided to become a moderator on the site I enjoy. /uil") This is a tone tag specifically made for systems.
Warning: This section has distressing topics, some of which may be triggering to trauma survivors. Please skip over this section if one feels they are at risk of being triggered/uncomfortable/distressed.
Psychological Trauma is a response one's mind may have to a heavily stressful event. Trauma can change how one's mind/thoughts function, can affect and alter behaviors, can cause one to form unhealthy behaviors, cause one to develop triggers, and/or cause one to develop a trauma disorder. Those with trauma typically fall under the neurodivergent spectrum, due to their minds functioning in a non-typical way as a result of the events they lived through.
Formers Of Trauma
Abuse is usually a traumatic experience, which falls under multiple categories. Abuse is when an individual one is supposed to be able to trust (family, friends, peers, co-workers, teachers, doctors, etc) mistreat and harm the individual, usually in a repeated manner (with some exceptions). Many affected by abuse face overlaps of these forms (such as emotional and sexual abuse paired together). This could also potentially involve torture. Forms of abuse include:
- Bullying: the act of degrading, humiliating, manipulating, shaming/mocking, and/or harming ones peer emotionally and/or physically. There are also sometimes sexual aspects (such as forcefully pulling down one's pants, as to reveal their genitalia to the peers around them). This typically takes place in school, community events, and workspaces. Bullying is often overlooked as a form of abuse; however, it should be taken seriously, as it can cause trauma for the affected individuals.
- Child Labor: the act of forcing/manipulating a child into extensive work (such as making a child do extensive gardening to the point of exhaustion). This does not include casual work (such as art, cooking, chores, etc) unless they are overloaded onto the child involved, and cause the child to become physically/mentally drained beyond a natural extent.
- Cyberbullying or Online Harassment: the act of bullying/harassing an individual through messages, social media, and online spaces. This could be sending death threats, sensitive imagery (pornography, violent images, triggering images), insulting/degrading/humiliating messages, encouraging self-harm and/or suicide, and similar.
- Emotional Abuse, Psychological Abuse, and/or Mental Abuse: the act of degrading, humiliating, manipulating, inflicting fear in, and/or neglecting one's emotions. Some examples of this is being told ones emotions are worthless, being manipulated into feeling a different emotion, having someone inflict or ingrate fear into one's thoughts, having ones emotions ignored/overlooked, and similar.
- Neglect: the act of ignoring one's needs, not providing ones needs, and/or holding back ones needs. This includes depriving one of nutrients (food and liquids), physical needs (beds, blankets, clothes, etc), medication/therapy/medical care (for mental or physical health/injuries), emotional/mental needs (support, assistance, education), and anything else along those lines.
- Physical Abuse: the act of physically harming ones body through physical violence (punching, kicking, squeezing, weapons, etc) forced consumption of substances (drugs, alcohol, chemicals, etc) and similar. Spanking is a common form of physical abuse, and is often overlooked and seen as 'acceptable,' though studies have shown that spanking is a harmful practice (one informative article on this topic can be found here).
- Sexual Abuse: the act of sexually harming ones body and/or mind. This includes sexually touching a individual without consent, sexually speaking to a individual without consent, pressuring/manipulating an individual into doing sexual acts with oneself or others, taking sexual photography/recordings of an individual without consent, and similar. Any adult that (knowingly) behaves sexually to a minor/child is participating in sexual abuse, as children cannot consent.
Assault is usually a traumatic experience, which falls under two categories. Assault is the act of harming an individual (typically one they barely know/barely have interacted with). This could also potentially involve torture. Forms of assault include:
- Physical Assault: the act of physically attacking an individual. This could be due to discrimination, dislike, revenge, or a number of other reasons (however having a reason does not justify the damage). Aggravated Assault is the term used when a weapon is involved.
- Sexual Assault: the act of sexually attacking an individual, with or without a weapon. This includes forceful groping/touching, forceful stripping, and rape (forced sex). The affected individual is not at all fault for these acts, and can be manipulated or threatened into participating in them (while not being truly consenting).
Betrayal (usually from a trusted individual, such as a family member, friend, partner, co-worker, teacher, babysitter/caretaker, law enforcement, etc) is a potentially traumatic experience. This could be emotional/mental betrayal (breaking promises, exposing one's personal information/secrets, etc), financial (stealing one's money/stuff, neglecting to provide financial needs), physical betrayal (betraying one's physical needs, neglecting to provide one's physical needs), medical betrayal (betraying one's medical needs, neglecting to provide one's medical needs), etc. Some forms of betrayal can be classified as neglect if they deprive one of personal needs.
Criminal Activity is a potentially traumatic experience. While criminal activity is a broad amount of activities, the ones commonly associated with trauma is abuse, assault, thievery, break-ins, kidnappings, murders, terrorism, sapi trafficking, arson, gangs, etc. All of these events can be traumatizing for individuals affected by/targeted by these crimes, individuals who witnessed these crimes, individuals close to Individuals who have been affected by these crimes, individuals who are/were close to a criminal, and/or the criminal themself. Other forms of criminal acts not listed above can also be traumatizing as well.
Conversion Trauma is trauma related to the attempt/act of converting one's thoughts and/or beliefs into something different. Conversion is not always a negative thing; however, it can be riddled/clouded with abuse, harassment, and manipulation if done in a harmful way. The two most common acts of traumatic conversion include:
- Conversion Therapy: the act of trying to force an individual to stop being queer (which is mental abuse), and can include acts of violence, manipulation, gaslighting, and similar.
- Religious Conversion: the act of trying to introduce one to specific religious/spiritual beliefs, which in of itself is not harmful, however, when done in a forceful, harassing, and/or manipulative manner can become a traumatic experience. This include cults, which participate in brainwashing and gaslighting, as well as many forms of abuse.
Comparison is a potentially traumatic experience. This could be comparisons of one's behaviors, comparisons of one's physical appearance, comparisons of ones work, etc. This is often found in parents who compare their children to one another, or intimate partners who compare their current partner to their exes; however, it can also be found amongst friends, school, workspaces, and similar.
Discrimination (the act of making unjustified distinction between individuals based on their race/ethnicity, religion/spirituality, gender, sex, attraction, body, identities, and similar) is usually a former of trauma. Discrimination can overlap with almost every other form of trauma, as discrimination is the encouragement/baseline for many aggressive/unfair/unjust behaviors.
Dishonest Behavior/Lying is a potentially traumatic experience, as it may cause an individual to doubt the world (and Individuals) around them, and can cause emotional distancing towards their surroundings. Manipulation falls under this.
Displacement, Forced Relocation, and/or Deportation are all potentially traumatic experiences. These are all the act of forcing out a population from the spaces they lived in, and forcing them to move/be transported elsewhere. This can be traumatic, as one may not have anywhere else to go, may have to leave all friends/family behind, and similar. Deportation is associated with racial/ethnic discrimination, as well as other types of discrimination, in which one pushes out those of minorities or unaccepted societal groups out of their living spaces.
Exotrauma is a form of trauma experienced by some non-human headmates, introjects, walk-in headmates, headmates with experiences before joining the system, and alterhumans. Exotrauma is trauma that stems from experiences one had in a different life/state of being (or, in a simpler manner, experiences had not to the current physical body). For example, an elfkin individual may have exotrauma regarding war if they experienced a war in a previous life. Exotrauma can be any form of trauma their kintype, source, previous life, previous state experienced.
Exploitation is a potentially traumatic experience. It is the act of treating someone unfairly for self gain (for example, copying someone's work and claiming it to be ones own work). This can overlap with betrayal, manipulation, abuse, and/or harassment, depending on how one exploits an individual.
Exposure is usually a traumatic experience. It is the act of exposing a child or otherwise innocent/unexpecting individual to concepts that are not appropriate for their mind/age, which are typically unable to be properly processed, thus forming traumatic responses. This includes exposure to sexual activity/sexual content, violence/death/abuse/suicide/self harm, crime, drug use and alcohol, mental/physical distress, and similar adult-themed topics. This could also happen through media (movies, books, games, etc) in which an individual stumbles upon unwanted heavy topics (pornography, violent imagery, etc).
Getting Lost is a potentially traumatic experience, as the act of losing one's way home/to their loved one can be a terrifying and vulnerable experience, especially when one gets lost for a long period of time and/or lost in a remote location.
Harassment is usually a traumatic experience, which falls under multiple categories. Harassment is the act of (aggressively or uncomfortably) pressuring and/or intimidating an individual, usually in an unjustified manner. Many affected by harassment face overlaps of these forms (such as police harassment and racial harassment paired together). Forms of harassment include:
- Landlord Harassment: when a landlord or their agents make purposefully uncomfortable conditions for their tenants. This can cause stress, feelings of discomfort, feeling unsafe in ones home, can cause financial issues, and can force an individual to move out (even if one has no other place to go). This could be enforced due to discriminatory reasons (such as the landlord being racist/queerphobic/sexist/etc) out of spite, and/or in order to receive more money.
- Physical Harassment: when an individual touches someone non-consensually, and continues to do so after being told not to. This is usually not sexual in nature, nor is it physically harmful; however, it is psychological harmful as they are breaking the individuals boundaries.
- Police Misconduct/Harassment: when a police officer harasses individuals by misusing their power as law enforcement. This could be coercing/manipulating one into 'confessing' a crime they didn't commit, purposefully arresting individuals who did not commit crime, tampering with evidence/creating false testimonies, unwarranted and invasive surveillance/searches/seizure of property, brutality/violence (usually in a discriminatory manner to BIPOC Individuals/queer Individuals/minorities/etc), and/or misusing their role for purposeful gain.
- Power Harassment: when a worker bullies/harasses an individual of a lower position within their workspace. This includes sexual harassment, physical harassment, being shamed/yelled at in front of peers, false/unfair demotion and evaluation, and neglect (such as disallowing necessary work-breaks).
- Recorded Harassment: when an individual records/takes photos of an individual without their consent, possible sharing said imagery/recordings around the internet/to other Individuals.
- Racial Harassment: any form of harassment that is specifically based on racism (such as a white individual performing power harassment on a non-white Hispanic worker).
- Religious Harassment: any form of harassment that is specifically based on ones religious/spirituality, or lack thereof (such as a Muslim facing landlord harassment due to their beliefs). This can also include forceful attempts/acts of religious conversion.
- Sexual Harassment: when one makes unwanted sexual advances, exposes one to unwanted sexual materiel (such as showing off one's genitalia), makes unwanted sexual comments, and/or asks unwanted sexual questions, typically continuously (even after told to stop).
- Stalking: when one observes/follows an individual without their consent (and often times without their knowledge). This could take place online or offline.
- Verbal Harassment/Assault: when one insults, degrades, or otherwise uses words in order to cause distress to an individual.
- Workplace Harassment: any form of harassment that is specifically targeted towards ones co-workers. Power harassment falls under this umbrella. This also includes overbearing supervision, constant-unneeded criticism, and blocking promotion.
Homelessness/poverty (the lack of a home/the lack of materiel possessions/money) is usually a traumatic experience. This is due to the hardships, harassment, lack of safety, sickness/illness, and lack of nutrients that is faced when one does not have enough to care for themselves and/or the family around them and/or does not have a shelter.
Isolation is a potentially traumatic experience, as physical and emotional company is a necessity for most living beings, especially individuals. This isolation could be from abuse/harassment/assault (ie: being purposefully trapped in a closet, empty room, cage, etc), from trusted individuals (ie: accidentally being locked in a car, being isolated in a hospital because it will assist physical recoveries, etc), from oneself (ie: self-isolating due to self hatred, mental illness, stress, etc), from necessity (ie: quarantine, long-lasting storms, etc), and/or other reasons (such as being arrested and kept in an isolated cell).
Lack of Representation is a potentially traumatic experience, as one may grow up feeling isolated/alone within social spaces. This can apply to queer Individuals, BIPOC, disabled Individuals, neurodivergent Individuals, and/or other minorities. Similarly, Lack of Support in one's accomplishments and identity can be potentially traumatic, as well as Lack of Encouragement.
Loss is a potentially traumatic experience, as losing a family member, partner, friend, acquaintance, patient, or co-worker can bring grief, sorrow, depression, and (depending on the form of death they had) the brutality of the death can cause more distress (even if they did not witness the death themself).
Natural Disasters and/or Natural Events (tornados, earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, storms, animal attacks, etc) is a potentially traumatic experience, as they could cause immense distress, destruction of property and/or physical harm (to oneself or a loved one), or cause immense changes (such as breaking apart ones town).
Medical Trauma is a form of trauma relating to medical settings (hospitals, doctors, therapists, etc). Forms of medical trauma include:
- Forced Medical Treatment: being forced into medical care can be a traumatic experience. Even when an individual needs said care, the act of being (physically, mentally, and/or emotionally) forced into it can be traumatizing.
- Hospitalization: being taken to a hospital can be a traumatic experience, no matter what the age, especially when it is in regards to one's health and/or a loved ones health. This can be especially traumatic for children, who cannot fully understand the extent of the treatment/injuries/illness they or one of their loved ones are experiencing.
- Medical Abuse/Harassment: being abused/harassed by medical professionals (such as therapists and nurses). This could be done in a manipulative manner, in which they convince the patient that they are trying to help while in reality, they are harming the individual.
- Unneeded Medical Care: being given unneeded treatment (either purposefully or accidentally) can be a traumatic experience, as it puts one through intense/uncomfortable situations, and pushes one into using medication/treatment that may cause distress.
- Unreliable/Incorrect Diagnosis/Medication: being misdiagnosed and improperly medicated can worsen ones mental/physical state, and can be potentially traumatic to experience.
- Unreliable Therapy/Therapists/Psychologists: being given an unreliable treatment (that may worsen ones issues), and/or having a therapist/psychologist that does not follow the confidentiality rules can be a traumatic experience, especially due to the fact that therapists/psychologists are supposed to be reliable, and the betrayal of this (intentional or not) can further push one into dismay.
Moving is a potentially traumatic experience, as it usually involves tearing an individual from their familiar spaces/company, and beginning in an unknown. This can involve moving homes, moving schools, etc. This can be extremely distressing, as the loss of ones familiar setting can make one feel isolated.
Physically-Threatening Events (such as choking, almost-drowning, house-fires, vehicle accidents, breaking bones, etc) is a potentially traumatic experience, due to the stress of injury, the loss of personal desires/wants (such as the loss of one's house), and/or the guilt of harming another individual (such as hitting someone in a car accident).
Pressuring/Forceful Behaviors (such as forcing someone to eat more than they are hungry for, sleep more than they are able to, participate in events that they don't want to, etc) is a potentially traumatic experience, as those who do this ignore the other individuals boundaries (physical and mental). Peer Pressuring is included under this.
Prisons/Jail can be (and usually is) traumatic, due to the unjust ways it is usually set up, and the torturous behavior guards treat inmates, and other inmates treat one another. It is also a form of isolation, a large change, and it often consists of being deprived of personal belongings, overworked, and being harassed/assaulted/abused. Leaving prison/jail can be equally traumatic (especially if one has not been outside in years) and can be hard or impossible to readjust to.
Relationship Issues is a potentially traumatic experience. This could be any form of relationship; however, it typically is used in the context of a romantic relationship. This could be arguments, divorce, having a partner with trauma, and/or being the witness to this (such as being a child watching parents fight/get divorced, or being in a polyamorous relationship where two or more partners are having issues). This can also include cheating, lying, infidelity, and in some cases, pregnancy. In context of non-romantic relationships, this could be issues between family members, friends, and/or coworkers. Non-romantic relationship issues are often seen in foster parents with their foster kids.
Religious Trauma is trauma based upon religion, typically forming from abusive/manipulative churches/spiritual spaces, abusive/manipulative religious relatives/friends, and cults. This often affects the queer community, as many churches of many different religions are very unaccepting and abusive of queer identities, and can cause immense traumatic experiences. Cults also almost always result in religious trauma, and it is very rare for a cult to not be traumatic.
Secondary Trauma is trauma based on witnessing, hearing, or being described another individuals traumatic events. For example, witnessing a brother being abused, hearing an individual be assaulted over a phone call, being described the details of a friend's sexual assault, etc. This is often due to the connection ones mind makes from the individual to themself (ie: "what if that were me?"), the guilt that forms for not being able to help, and/or the frightful/stressful sights/noises one is exposed.
Self Harm (and Suicide) is usually a traumatic experience. This could be one's own self-harm, witnessed or heard of self-harm, and/or both. Self-harm can be (and usually is) a stressful, violent, terrifying, and distressing event, and can be hard to stop (in oneself and others) which may cause intense fear/distress, as one may be unsure if the harm will ever end, making it all the more traumatic.
Some Symptoms of Neurodivergence can be traumatic. For example, disturbing hallucinations and delusions from psychosis can cause immense trauma, especially if one believes the events/beings witnessed/felt are real. This applies to many symptoms of neurodivergence; however, it does not apply to all symptoms, and not everyone with specific symptoms will end up traumatized from them.
Some Symptoms of Physical Disabilities can be traumatic. For example, disabilities that cause pain or exhaustion may be traumatic in nature, as physical strain on one's body can be emotionally/mentally distressing, and experiencing these symptoms on a regular or semi-regular basis can be mentally taxing.
Specific Lines of Work can be traumatic, especially if they are based around protection, rescue services, law-enforcement, and/or medical care. Protective work can be traumatic as one may have to protect individuals from stressful and/or violent events, rescue services can be traumatic due to rescuing individuals from violent/disastrous events, law enforcement can be traumatic due to witnessing crime/disaster, and medical care can be traumatic due to witnessing/being involved with gore, death, sickness, and otherwise heavy subjects. These jobs can also be traumatic if one fails to protect/save someone and/or is forced to harm someone, and is left with immense guilt.
Stress can be a potentially traumatic experience, especially when in high levels. This is due to the mental and emotional difficulties stress has, and having this pressure on ones mind consistently and/or strongly can cause a mental/emotional break (or shattering) of the mind's health.
Unexpected/Unprepared Changes can be potentially traumatic experiences, (such as unexpected pregnancy or work demotion) due to it being shocking, sporadic, and/or unprepared for. This can cause immense stress and pressure, and can cause an individual to feel intense anxiety/fear/depression/etc. to the point of leaving a mental scarring.
Unexplained Phenomena or Unnatural Phenomena can be potentially traumatic experiences. This includes unexplained behavior from loved ones (or even strangers in some cases), paranormal activity, spiritual activity, unexplained/unnatural thoughts/images/dreams, etc. This could be due to the mystery of it, the stress of trying to comprehend it and/or make sense of it, and/or the dangerous situations it may put one in.
War is usually a traumatic event, due to the involved violence, death, loss/destruction (of individuals, objects, or familiar locations), torture, and/or weapon use. This can affect those fighting/involved, those in the sidelines, the families of the involved, civilians who get attacked/damaged by the battles, etc.
Wrongful Blames/Wrongful Accusations can be a potentially traumatic event, as one may suffer someone else's punishments and/or be shamed for something that was not of their doing. This includes Victim Blaming (the act of blaming a trauma survivor for their trauma—for example, saying that wearing short clothes was 'asking for it' in terms of sexual assault). This is because the individual may feel betrayed for being assumed to have done something, guilty for something they didn't do, and/or may be shunned and ridiculed by the individual, or feel like the individual accusing them sees them as less-than.
Common misconceptions for neurodivergent types include the following:
- Neurodivergent Individuals are all dangerous/demons/criminals (this misconception is especially directed at psychotic disorders, mood disorders, and paraphillias).
- Neurodivergent Individuals can't control themselves (this misconception is especially directed at mood disorders, psychotic disorders, and sexual disorders).
- Neurodivergent Individuals are less intelligent and are incapable (this misconception is especially directed at the autism spectrum, learning disorders, and developmental disorders).
- Neurodivergent Individuals can't live a fulfilling life.
- Neurodivergent Individuals all need to be "cured" or medicated. (Medication is only needed for disorders with unhealthy side effects.)
- Neurodivergent Individuals should be ashamed/guilty if they have negative symptoms (this promotes the idea that it is the fault of the individual, and that they chose to be negatively affected). These are the common misconceptions, however each form of neurodivergence faces its own unique misconceptions as well (such as plural Individuals being 'alter egos'). These unique misconceptions should be spoken of, heard, and challenged. If a neurodivergent individual says that something is offensive or misleading, it is important to listen, learn, and spread awareness.
Neurodivergent Individuals face many forms of discrimination, all of which cannot be covered in this page. Each form of neurodivergence experiences its own unique set of discriminatory behaviors; however, some commonly-shared discrimination against the neurodivergent community includes the following:
- Hate crimes, harassment, assault, bullying, and abuse due to being perceived in a negative light.
- Being treated as the 'black sheep' in families, households, social spaces, groups, etc.
- Lack of support in education, medical care, and workspaces (often being denied jobs due to being assumed to be 'less capable' of work).
- Movies/TV/stories demonizing different forms of neurodivergence, and making neurodivergence seem like "a bad influence" to an individual's behavior.
- Movies/TV/stories portraying different forms of neurodivergence as 'dumb' or 'unpleasant to associate with.'
- Media portraying neurodivergent Individuals as criminals or as incapable of kindness.
- The use of slurs directed at neurodivergent Individuals (such as the r-slur).
- The romanticization of neurodivergence (such as it being portrayed as a personality trait/quirky decision, and not being treated seriously).
- The misuse of genuine conditions (such as someone saying "oh my gosh, now I have PTSD" after a slightly uncomfortable situation, which downplays actual PTSD, or someone saying they are an insomniac after simply having trouble sleeping).
There are many words used in a medically incorrect, offensive, misleading, and demonizing manner, which in actuality are associated with neurodivergence. These words include the following:
- Psychopath: this word is supposed to be used to describe someone with antisocial personality disorder (and sometimes those with a psychotic disorder); however, society has taken up this word to mean "violent and aggressive individual" or "evil individual" which perpetuates the idea that actual psychopaths should be feared. Psychopath should only be used in reference to an individual with a psychotic disorder, and should not be used to mean "evil/violent/aggressive." This also applies for variants of the word (such as psychotic, psychopathic, psycho, etc).
- Sociopath: this word is supposed to be used to describe someone with ASPD; however, society has taken up this word to mean "manipulative, aggressive, and emotionless" which perpetuates the idea that actual sociopaths cannot be fulfilling friends, family members, partners, associates, etc. Sociopath should only be used in reference to an individual with ASPD, and should not be used to mean "manipulative/aggressive/emotionless." This also applies for variants of the word (such as sociopathic, sociopathy, etc).
- Narcissist: this word is supposed to be used to describe someone with NPD; however society has taken up this word to mean "manipulative, self-absorbed, abusive, and loveless" which perpetuates the idea that actual narcissists cannot be compassionate, loving, and kind individuals. Narcissist should only be used in reference to an individual with NPD, and should not be used to mean "manipulative/abusive/self-absorbed/loveless." This also applies for variants of the word (such as narcissism, narcissistic, etc).
If one is using these words in an incorrect and offensive manner, it is important to practice deviating from such behavior, as it can cause harm for neurodivergent individuals around the world, and can encourage others to misuse these words in the same way.
For individuals who have been through trauma, the word "victim" is often considered offensive, and the word "survivor" is preferred, as it promotes strength, and does not paint the picture of a trauma survivor being "weak."
The original rainbow symbol, was coined specifically for autism, and is often mistakenly used as a representative of neurodivergence as a whole. One of the earliest uses of the rainbow infinity symbol was for Autistic Pride Day, created in 2005 by the group Aspies for Freedom, and the symbol has been widely adopted in the years since by many autistic individuals and autistic-run organizations.
The alternate rainbow symbol is associated with neurodivergence as a whole, and is typically seen as open to all neurodivergence, rather than exclusively autism.
The neurodivergent flag was coined by Tumblr user neopronouns on February 16, 2021. The color meanings are as follows:
- Indigo is for justice and support for all neurodivergent Individuals; knowledge of the truth of neurodivergent Individuals's lived experiences; pushing back against misinformation spread by ableists.
- Green is for neurodivergent Individuals's perspectives on the world, on their neurotypes, and on the neurodivergent community itself; personal growth, growth of resources and scientific knowledge, and growth of the community; healing from ableism, especially internalized ableism.
- White is for understanding each other; appreciating ones own and each other’s unique lives and experiences.
- Gold is for compassion for other neurodivergent Individuals and helping uplift one another; confidence in oneself and in the community.
- Red is for the power the neurodivergent community holds and the activism they come together to do; love for other neurodivergent Individuals, for oneself, and for one’s neurotype, whatever type of love that is; optimistic views for the future of neurodivergent Individuals.