A calalai is a person in Bugis society who is assigned female at birth but takes on the roles of a heterosexual male. Calalai dress and present as men, hold masculine jobs, and typically live with female partners to adopt children. They are roughly equivalent to transgender men.
In 2015, a book entitled, "Eksistensi Calalai dalam Budaya Sulawesi Selatan" (Existence of Calalai in South Sulawesi Culture) was written by Lily Sugianto, Aflina Mustafainah and Catharina Indirastuti and published by the Ardhanary Institute, supported by HIVOS SEA. The book's epilogue was written by Prof. Dr. Nurhayati Rahman and Dr. Dede Oetomo.